Micro-machined deep silicon atomic vapor cells

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Using a simple and cost-effective water jet process, silicon etch depth limitations are overcome to realize a 6 mm deep atomic vapor cell. While the minimum silicon feature size was limited to a 1.5 mm width in these first generation vapor cells, we successfully demonstrate a two-chamber geometry by including a ∼ 25 mm meandering channel between the alkali pill chamber and the main interrogation chamber. We evaluate the impact of the channel conductance on the introduction of the alkali vapor density during the pill activation process and mitigate glass damage and pill contamination near the main chamber. Finally, we highlight the improved signal achievable in the 6 mm silicon cell compared to standard 2 mm path length silicon vapor cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134401
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number13
Early online date3 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2022


  • atomic sensors
  • micro-fabrication
  • silicon vapor cells
  • MEMS atomic vapor cells


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