Metavisualisation helps with mental models

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Research-based tips for improving your students' sub-microscopic understanding of particle models. Johnstone's triangle summarises levels of representation regularly used when thinking about chemical concepts. Of the three levels, the sub-microscopic is probably the most important for understanding or explaining how chemical processes occur. A student's understanding of how the sub-microscopic level is visually represented, for example in diagrams, is directly linked to their understanding of the underlying chemistry concepts.


  • metavisualisation
  • chemistry education
  • mental models
  • visual representations
  • sub-micropscopic
  • particle models
  • education research
  • evidence-based teaching
  • higher-order thinking and metacognition
  • Johnstone's model


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