Metamotivational dominance, states and injuries in risk and safe sports

Nicola Cogan, R.i.f. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Male risk sport participants (36 snowboarders) were compared with male safe sport participants (26 badminton players) using the Telic Dominance Scale [Murgatroyd, S., Rushton, C., Apter, M.J., and Ray, C. (1978) The development of the telic dominance scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 519-527] and the Negativistic Dominance Scale [McDermott, M.R., and Apter, M. J. (1988). The Negativism Dominance Scale. In M. J. Apter, J.H. Kerr, and M.P. Cowles (Eds.), Progress in reversal theory. Amsterdam: North-Holland] and the Telic/Paratelic State Instrument. Subjects also completed an Injury Behaviour Checklist giving information on the objective risk of the sports pursued. Risk sportsmen scored significantly lower than safe sportsmen on the TDS total score and on the Serious-Mindedness and Arousal Avoidance subscales, but there were no significant differences in Planning Orientation. Risk sportsmen scored significantly higher than safe on total NDS and on the Proactive subscale but not on the Reactive subscale. Analysis of T/PSI scores showed that both groups remained in their dominant state throughout the time course of the investigation. Risk sportsmen received more frequent and more serious injuries throughout the period of study and both TDS and NDS scores were significantly correlated with number of injuries. Discussion of high-risk sport as a way of meeting arousal, escape and control needs, and as expressing rebellion is related to values and stereotypes involved in risky sports and to implications in identifying possible addictions and preventing injuries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-518
Number of pages16
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 1999


  • sport participation
  • risk
  • telic dominance scale
  • negativistic dominance scale


Dive into the research topics of 'Metamotivational dominance, states and injuries in risk and safe sports'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this