Metaldehyde removal from aqueous solution was evaluated using Granular Activated Carbon(GAC), a non-functionalized hyper-cross-linked polymer Macronet (MN200) and an ion-exchange resin (S957) with sulfonic and phosphonic functional groups. Equilibrium experimental data were successfully described by Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of S957 (7.5 g metaldehyde/g S957) exceeded those of MN200 and GAC. Thermodynamic studies showed that sorption of metaldehyde onto all sorbents is endothermic and processes are controlled by entropic rather than enthalpic changes. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that experimental data for MN200 and GAC obey pseudo-second order models with rates limited by particle diffusion. Comparatively, S957 was shown to obey a pseudo-first order model with a rate-limiting step of metaldehyde diffusion through the solid/liquid interface. Results obtained suggest that metaldehyde adsorption onto MN200 and GAC are driven by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, as leaching tendencies were high since no degradation of metaldehyde occurred. Conversely, adsorption of metaldehyde onto S957 occurs via ion-exchange processes, where sulfonic and phosphonic functionalities degrade adsorbed metaldehyde molecules and failure to detect metaldehyde in leaching studies for S957 supports this theory. Consequently, the high adsorption capacity and absence of leaching indicate S957 is promising for metaldehyde removal from source water.
- metaldehyde contamination
- ion exchange mechanism