Measurement of the surface water reaeration coefficient using Kr as a gas tracer

J L Murphy, P A Mackinnon, Y Q Zhao, R M Kalin, T. Elliot

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Details are presented of a system devised to use Krypton (Kr) to quantify the reaeration coefficient in surface waters. The technique is based upon similarities in the gas transport mechanisms of dissolved Kr and oxygen (O-2) in water, and relies on the low natural abundance of Kr in the atmosphere and consequently in surface waters.

The experimental protocols used in laboratory tests and preliminary field trials are given. Kr was released into the water bodies, either by introduction of "kryptonated" water (in the laboratory) or by using a fine-pore diffuser (in field tests). In each case, a quantity of the fluorescent dye tracer, Rhodamine WT, was released simultaneously - the latter to identify the progress of the kryptonated water and to act as a conservative tracer (allowing the effects of dispersion and tracer dilution to be quantified and isolated from the gas loss through mass transfer process). Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for the tracers were monitored at predetermined locations downstream of the release point by taking a series of "grab" samples. The samples were taken and stored using predetermined protocols to ensure reliable results. The samples were analysed for Kr in the laboratory by gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using headspace analysis, and then for Rhodamine WT by sensitive fluorimetry. Using the BTCs for Kr and Rhodamine WT, the rate at which Kr was released from the water to the atmosphere was calculated from the mass difference between downstream points (areas under BTC) after correction for dispersion/dilution effects. The rate of Kr release was then used to determine a value for the reaeration coefficient.

The results of laboratory and river tests show that, with further refinement, the method could provide a viable means for evaluating the reaeration coefficient, and hence the potential for reoxygenation, of surface waters.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWater pollution VI
Subtitle of host publicationmodelling, measuring and prediction
EditorsC.A. Brebbia
Place of PublicationAshurst
Pages505-514
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2001
Event6th International Conference on Water Pollution - Rhodes, Greece
Duration: 1 Sep 20011 Sep 2001

Publication series

NameInternational Series on Progress in Water Resources
PublisherWIT Press
Volume3
ISSN (Print)1461-6513

Conference

Conference6th International Conference on Water Pollution
CountryGreece
CityRhodes
Period1/09/011/09/01

Fingerprint

krypton
tracer
surface water
gas
breakthrough curve
dilution
dye tracer
fluorometry
water
gas transport
atmosphere
mass transfer
mass spectrometry
oxygen

Keywords

  • measurement
  • surface water
  • reaeration
  • coefficient
  • Kr
  • gas tracer

Cite this

Murphy, J. L., Mackinnon, P. A., Zhao, Y. Q., Kalin, R. M., & Elliot, T. (2001). Measurement of the surface water reaeration coefficient using Kr as a gas tracer. In C. A. Brebbia (Ed.), Water pollution VI: modelling, measuring and prediction (pp. 505-514 ). (International Series on Progress in Water Resources; Vol. 3). Ashurst.
Murphy, J L ; Mackinnon, P A ; Zhao, Y Q ; Kalin, R M ; Elliot, T. / Measurement of the surface water reaeration coefficient using Kr as a gas tracer. Water pollution VI: modelling, measuring and prediction. editor / C.A. Brebbia. Ashurst, 2001. pp. 505-514 (International Series on Progress in Water Resources).
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Murphy, JL, Mackinnon, PA, Zhao, YQ, Kalin, RM & Elliot, T 2001, Measurement of the surface water reaeration coefficient using Kr as a gas tracer. in CA Brebbia (ed.), Water pollution VI: modelling, measuring and prediction. International Series on Progress in Water Resources, vol. 3, Ashurst, pp. 505-514 , 6th International Conference on Water Pollution , Rhodes, Greece, 1/09/01.

Measurement of the surface water reaeration coefficient using Kr as a gas tracer. / Murphy, J L; Mackinnon, P A; Zhao, Y Q; Kalin, R M; Elliot, T.

Water pollution VI: modelling, measuring and prediction. ed. / C.A. Brebbia. Ashurst, 2001. p. 505-514 (International Series on Progress in Water Resources; Vol. 3).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

TY - GEN

T1 - Measurement of the surface water reaeration coefficient using Kr as a gas tracer

AU - Murphy, J L

AU - Mackinnon, P A

AU - Zhao, Y Q

AU - Kalin, R M

AU - Elliot, T.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Details are presented of a system devised to use Krypton (Kr) to quantify the reaeration coefficient in surface waters. The technique is based upon similarities in the gas transport mechanisms of dissolved Kr and oxygen (O-2) in water, and relies on the low natural abundance of Kr in the atmosphere and consequently in surface waters. The experimental protocols used in laboratory tests and preliminary field trials are given. Kr was released into the water bodies, either by introduction of "kryptonated" water (in the laboratory) or by using a fine-pore diffuser (in field tests). In each case, a quantity of the fluorescent dye tracer, Rhodamine WT, was released simultaneously - the latter to identify the progress of the kryptonated water and to act as a conservative tracer (allowing the effects of dispersion and tracer dilution to be quantified and isolated from the gas loss through mass transfer process). Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for the tracers were monitored at predetermined locations downstream of the release point by taking a series of "grab" samples. The samples were taken and stored using predetermined protocols to ensure reliable results. The samples were analysed for Kr in the laboratory by gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using headspace analysis, and then for Rhodamine WT by sensitive fluorimetry. Using the BTCs for Kr and Rhodamine WT, the rate at which Kr was released from the water to the atmosphere was calculated from the mass difference between downstream points (areas under BTC) after correction for dispersion/dilution effects. The rate of Kr release was then used to determine a value for the reaeration coefficient. The results of laboratory and river tests show that, with further refinement, the method could provide a viable means for evaluating the reaeration coefficient, and hence the potential for reoxygenation, of surface waters.

AB - Details are presented of a system devised to use Krypton (Kr) to quantify the reaeration coefficient in surface waters. The technique is based upon similarities in the gas transport mechanisms of dissolved Kr and oxygen (O-2) in water, and relies on the low natural abundance of Kr in the atmosphere and consequently in surface waters. The experimental protocols used in laboratory tests and preliminary field trials are given. Kr was released into the water bodies, either by introduction of "kryptonated" water (in the laboratory) or by using a fine-pore diffuser (in field tests). In each case, a quantity of the fluorescent dye tracer, Rhodamine WT, was released simultaneously - the latter to identify the progress of the kryptonated water and to act as a conservative tracer (allowing the effects of dispersion and tracer dilution to be quantified and isolated from the gas loss through mass transfer process). Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for the tracers were monitored at predetermined locations downstream of the release point by taking a series of "grab" samples. The samples were taken and stored using predetermined protocols to ensure reliable results. The samples were analysed for Kr in the laboratory by gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using headspace analysis, and then for Rhodamine WT by sensitive fluorimetry. Using the BTCs for Kr and Rhodamine WT, the rate at which Kr was released from the water to the atmosphere was calculated from the mass difference between downstream points (areas under BTC) after correction for dispersion/dilution effects. The rate of Kr release was then used to determine a value for the reaeration coefficient. The results of laboratory and river tests show that, with further refinement, the method could provide a viable means for evaluating the reaeration coefficient, and hence the potential for reoxygenation, of surface waters.

KW - measurement

KW - surface water

KW - reaeration

KW - coefficient

KW - Kr

KW - gas tracer

M3 - Conference contribution book

SN - 1853128783

T3 - International Series on Progress in Water Resources

SP - 505

EP - 514

BT - Water pollution VI

A2 - Brebbia, C.A.

CY - Ashurst

ER -

Murphy JL, Mackinnon PA, Zhao YQ, Kalin RM, Elliot T. Measurement of the surface water reaeration coefficient using Kr as a gas tracer. In Brebbia CA, editor, Water pollution VI: modelling, measuring and prediction. Ashurst. 2001. p. 505-514 . (International Series on Progress in Water Resources).