Measurement of field scale N2O emission fluxes from a wheat crop using micrometeorological techniques

U Skiba, K J Hargreaves, I J Beverland, D H ONeill, D Fowler, J B Moncrieff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Measurements of N2O emission fluxes from a 3 ha field of winter wheat were measured using eddy covariance and relaxed eddy accumulation continuously over 10 days during April 1994. The measurements averaged fluxes over approximately 10(5) m(2) of the field, which was fertilised with NH4NO3 at a rate of 43 kg N ha(-1) at the beginning of the measurements. The emission fluxes became detectable after the first heavy rainfall, which occured 4 days after fertiliser application. Emissions of N2O increased rapidly during the day following thr: rain to a maximum of 280 ng N m(-2)s(-1) and declined over the following week. During the period of significant emission fluxes, a clear diurnal cycle in N2O emission was observed, with the daytime maximum coinciding with the soil temperature maximum at 12 cm depth. The temperature dependence of the N2O emission was equivalent to an activation energy for N2O production of 108 kJ mol(-1). The N2O fluxes measured using relaxed eddy accumulation, averaged over 30 to 270 min, were in agreement with those of the eddy covariance system within 60%. The total emission of N2O over the period of continuous measurement(10 days) was equivalent to about 10 kg N2O-N, or 0.77% of the N fertiliser applied.

LanguageEnglish
Pages139-144
Number of pages6
JournalPlant and Soil
Volume181
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1996

Fingerprint

wheat
crop
crops
eddy covariance
methodology
eddy
rain
flux measurement
fertilizer application
activation energy
soil temperature
winter wheat
nitrogen fertilizers
fertilizer
rainfall
winter
temperature

Keywords

  • eddy covariance
  • eddy accumulation
  • micrometeorology
  • nitrous oxide
  • gas fluxes
  • soils
  • atmosphere

Cite this

Skiba, U ; Hargreaves, K J ; Beverland, I J ; ONeill, D H ; Fowler, D ; Moncrieff, J B . / Measurement of field scale N2O emission fluxes from a wheat crop using micrometeorological techniques. In: Plant and Soil. 1996 ; Vol. 181, No. 1. pp. 139-144.
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abstract = "Measurements of N2O emission fluxes from a 3 ha field of winter wheat were measured using eddy covariance and relaxed eddy accumulation continuously over 10 days during April 1994. The measurements averaged fluxes over approximately 10(5) m(2) of the field, which was fertilised with NH4NO3 at a rate of 43 kg N ha(-1) at the beginning of the measurements. The emission fluxes became detectable after the first heavy rainfall, which occured 4 days after fertiliser application. Emissions of N2O increased rapidly during the day following thr: rain to a maximum of 280 ng N m(-2)s(-1) and declined over the following week. During the period of significant emission fluxes, a clear diurnal cycle in N2O emission was observed, with the daytime maximum coinciding with the soil temperature maximum at 12 cm depth. The temperature dependence of the N2O emission was equivalent to an activation energy for N2O production of 108 kJ mol(-1). The N2O fluxes measured using relaxed eddy accumulation, averaged over 30 to 270 min, were in agreement with those of the eddy covariance system within 60{\%}. The total emission of N2O over the period of continuous measurement(10 days) was equivalent to about 10 kg N2O-N, or 0.77{\%} of the N fertiliser applied.",
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Measurement of field scale N2O emission fluxes from a wheat crop using micrometeorological techniques. / Skiba, U ; Hargreaves, K J ; Beverland, I J ; ONeill, D H ; Fowler, D ; Moncrieff, J B .

In: Plant and Soil, Vol. 181, No. 1, 04.1996, p. 139-144.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of field scale N2O emission fluxes from a wheat crop using micrometeorological techniques

AU - Skiba, U

AU - Hargreaves, K J

AU - Beverland, I J

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AU - Fowler, D

AU - Moncrieff, J B

PY - 1996/4

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N2 - Measurements of N2O emission fluxes from a 3 ha field of winter wheat were measured using eddy covariance and relaxed eddy accumulation continuously over 10 days during April 1994. The measurements averaged fluxes over approximately 10(5) m(2) of the field, which was fertilised with NH4NO3 at a rate of 43 kg N ha(-1) at the beginning of the measurements. The emission fluxes became detectable after the first heavy rainfall, which occured 4 days after fertiliser application. Emissions of N2O increased rapidly during the day following thr: rain to a maximum of 280 ng N m(-2)s(-1) and declined over the following week. During the period of significant emission fluxes, a clear diurnal cycle in N2O emission was observed, with the daytime maximum coinciding with the soil temperature maximum at 12 cm depth. The temperature dependence of the N2O emission was equivalent to an activation energy for N2O production of 108 kJ mol(-1). The N2O fluxes measured using relaxed eddy accumulation, averaged over 30 to 270 min, were in agreement with those of the eddy covariance system within 60%. The total emission of N2O over the period of continuous measurement(10 days) was equivalent to about 10 kg N2O-N, or 0.77% of the N fertiliser applied.

AB - Measurements of N2O emission fluxes from a 3 ha field of winter wheat were measured using eddy covariance and relaxed eddy accumulation continuously over 10 days during April 1994. The measurements averaged fluxes over approximately 10(5) m(2) of the field, which was fertilised with NH4NO3 at a rate of 43 kg N ha(-1) at the beginning of the measurements. The emission fluxes became detectable after the first heavy rainfall, which occured 4 days after fertiliser application. Emissions of N2O increased rapidly during the day following thr: rain to a maximum of 280 ng N m(-2)s(-1) and declined over the following week. During the period of significant emission fluxes, a clear diurnal cycle in N2O emission was observed, with the daytime maximum coinciding with the soil temperature maximum at 12 cm depth. The temperature dependence of the N2O emission was equivalent to an activation energy for N2O production of 108 kJ mol(-1). The N2O fluxes measured using relaxed eddy accumulation, averaged over 30 to 270 min, were in agreement with those of the eddy covariance system within 60%. The total emission of N2O over the period of continuous measurement(10 days) was equivalent to about 10 kg N2O-N, or 0.77% of the N fertiliser applied.

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