Measurement of diesel combustion-related air pollution downwind of an experimental unconventional natural gas operations site

Eliani Ezani, Nicola Masey, Jonathan Gillespie, Tara K. Beattie, Zoe K. Shipton, Iain J. Beverland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background & aim: Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction activities have considerable potential to affect air quality. However, there are few published quantitative observations of the magnitude of such impacts. To provide context, we compared measured exposures to diesel engine exhaust close to industrial fracking equipment at an UNG training simulation site in Łowicz, Poland to pedestrian exposures to traffic-related air pollution in the city centre of Glasgow, UK.  Methods: We made mobile and static measurements at varying distances from sources in both of the above locations with a portable aethalometer (Aethlabs AE51) for black carbon (BC) and portable monitors (Aeroqual Series-500) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Duplicate BC measurements were compared with NO2 observations, after correction of the NO2 sensor response for O3 interference effects.  Results: Duplicate BC instruments provided similar real-time measurements (r = 0.92), which in turn were relatively highly correlated with NO2 observations at 5-minute temporal resolution at the UNG experimental site (r = 0.75) and on the walking route in Glasgow city centre (r = 0.64) suggesting common diesel sources for NO2 and BC in both locations. Average BC and NO2 concentrations measured approximately 10 m downwind of diesel fracking pumps were 11 and 113 µg/m³ respectively. These concentrations were approximately 37 times and 4 times higher than upwind background BC and NO2 concentrations at the site; and approximately 3 times higher than average BC and NO2 concentrations measured in traffic influenced areas in Glasgow.  Conclusions: Marked elevations of BC and NO2 concentrations were observed in downwind proximity to industrial fracking equipment and traffic sources. This suggests that exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions from fracking equipment may present a significant risk to people working on UNG sites over extended time periods. The short time resolution of the portable instruments used enabled identification of likely sources of occupational and environmental exposure to combustion-related air pollutants.
LanguageEnglish
Pages30-40
Number of pages11
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume189
Early online date21 Jun 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2018

Fingerprint

black carbon
diesel
natural gas
atmospheric pollution
combustion
diesel engine
exhaust emission
pedestrian
nitrogen dioxide
walking
pump
air quality
ozone
sensor
hydraulic fracturing
exposure
simulation
traffic

Keywords

  • unconventional natural gas (UNG)
  • air monitoring
  • black carbon (BC)
  • nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
  • ozone (O3)
  • AE51 aethalometer

Cite this

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title = "Measurement of diesel combustion-related air pollution downwind of an experimental unconventional natural gas operations site",
abstract = "Background & aim: Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction activities have considerable potential to affect air quality. However, there are few published quantitative observations of the magnitude of such impacts. To provide context, we compared measured exposures to diesel engine exhaust close to industrial fracking equipment at an UNG training simulation site in Łowicz, Poland to pedestrian exposures to traffic-related air pollution in the city centre of Glasgow, UK.  Methods: We made mobile and static measurements at varying distances from sources in both of the above locations with a portable aethalometer (Aethlabs AE51) for black carbon (BC) and portable monitors (Aeroqual Series-500) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Duplicate BC measurements were compared with NO2 observations, after correction of the NO2 sensor response for O3 interference effects.  Results: Duplicate BC instruments provided similar real-time measurements (r = 0.92), which in turn were relatively highly correlated with NO2 observations at 5-minute temporal resolution at the UNG experimental site (r = 0.75) and on the walking route in Glasgow city centre (r = 0.64) suggesting common diesel sources for NO2 and BC in both locations. Average BC and NO2 concentrations measured approximately 10 m downwind of diesel fracking pumps were 11 and 113 µg/m³ respectively. These concentrations were approximately 37 times and 4 times higher than upwind background BC and NO2 concentrations at the site; and approximately 3 times higher than average BC and NO2 concentrations measured in traffic influenced areas in Glasgow.  Conclusions: Marked elevations of BC and NO2 concentrations were observed in downwind proximity to industrial fracking equipment and traffic sources. This suggests that exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions from fracking equipment may present a significant risk to people working on UNG sites over extended time periods. The short time resolution of the portable instruments used enabled identification of likely sources of occupational and environmental exposure to combustion-related air pollutants.",
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author = "Eliani Ezani and Nicola Masey and Jonathan Gillespie and Beattie, {Tara K.} and Shipton, {Zoe K.} and Beverland, {Iain J.}",
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Measurement of diesel combustion-related air pollution downwind of an experimental unconventional natural gas operations site. / Ezani, Eliani; Masey, Nicola; Gillespie, Jonathan; Beattie, Tara K.; Shipton, Zoe K.; Beverland, Iain J.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 189, 30.09.2018, p. 30-40.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of diesel combustion-related air pollution downwind of an experimental unconventional natural gas operations site

AU - Ezani, Eliani

AU - Masey, Nicola

AU - Gillespie, Jonathan

AU - Beattie, Tara K.

AU - Shipton, Zoe K.

AU - Beverland, Iain J.

PY - 2018/9/30

Y1 - 2018/9/30

N2 - Background & aim: Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction activities have considerable potential to affect air quality. However, there are few published quantitative observations of the magnitude of such impacts. To provide context, we compared measured exposures to diesel engine exhaust close to industrial fracking equipment at an UNG training simulation site in Łowicz, Poland to pedestrian exposures to traffic-related air pollution in the city centre of Glasgow, UK.  Methods: We made mobile and static measurements at varying distances from sources in both of the above locations with a portable aethalometer (Aethlabs AE51) for black carbon (BC) and portable monitors (Aeroqual Series-500) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Duplicate BC measurements were compared with NO2 observations, after correction of the NO2 sensor response for O3 interference effects.  Results: Duplicate BC instruments provided similar real-time measurements (r = 0.92), which in turn were relatively highly correlated with NO2 observations at 5-minute temporal resolution at the UNG experimental site (r = 0.75) and on the walking route in Glasgow city centre (r = 0.64) suggesting common diesel sources for NO2 and BC in both locations. Average BC and NO2 concentrations measured approximately 10 m downwind of diesel fracking pumps were 11 and 113 µg/m³ respectively. These concentrations were approximately 37 times and 4 times higher than upwind background BC and NO2 concentrations at the site; and approximately 3 times higher than average BC and NO2 concentrations measured in traffic influenced areas in Glasgow.  Conclusions: Marked elevations of BC and NO2 concentrations were observed in downwind proximity to industrial fracking equipment and traffic sources. This suggests that exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions from fracking equipment may present a significant risk to people working on UNG sites over extended time periods. The short time resolution of the portable instruments used enabled identification of likely sources of occupational and environmental exposure to combustion-related air pollutants.

AB - Background & aim: Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction activities have considerable potential to affect air quality. However, there are few published quantitative observations of the magnitude of such impacts. To provide context, we compared measured exposures to diesel engine exhaust close to industrial fracking equipment at an UNG training simulation site in Łowicz, Poland to pedestrian exposures to traffic-related air pollution in the city centre of Glasgow, UK.  Methods: We made mobile and static measurements at varying distances from sources in both of the above locations with a portable aethalometer (Aethlabs AE51) for black carbon (BC) and portable monitors (Aeroqual Series-500) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Duplicate BC measurements were compared with NO2 observations, after correction of the NO2 sensor response for O3 interference effects.  Results: Duplicate BC instruments provided similar real-time measurements (r = 0.92), which in turn were relatively highly correlated with NO2 observations at 5-minute temporal resolution at the UNG experimental site (r = 0.75) and on the walking route in Glasgow city centre (r = 0.64) suggesting common diesel sources for NO2 and BC in both locations. Average BC and NO2 concentrations measured approximately 10 m downwind of diesel fracking pumps were 11 and 113 µg/m³ respectively. These concentrations were approximately 37 times and 4 times higher than upwind background BC and NO2 concentrations at the site; and approximately 3 times higher than average BC and NO2 concentrations measured in traffic influenced areas in Glasgow.  Conclusions: Marked elevations of BC and NO2 concentrations were observed in downwind proximity to industrial fracking equipment and traffic sources. This suggests that exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions from fracking equipment may present a significant risk to people working on UNG sites over extended time periods. The short time resolution of the portable instruments used enabled identification of likely sources of occupational and environmental exposure to combustion-related air pollutants.

KW - unconventional natural gas (UNG)

KW - air monitoring

KW - black carbon (BC)

KW - nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

KW - ozone (O3)

KW - AE51 aethalometer

UR - https://sciencedirect.com/journal/atmospheric-environment

U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.06.032

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T2 - Atmospheric Environment

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SN - 1352-2310

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