Measurement and analysis of PMU reporting latency for smart grid protection and control applications

Steven M. Blair, Mazheruddin H. Syed, Andrew J. Roscoe, Graeme M. Burt, Jean-Pierre Braun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
212 Downloads (Pure)


Emerging power system protection and control applications require faster-responding measurements and more accurate knowledge of the actual latency of the measurement and communications systems. A new method for accurately determining the reporting latency of a phasor measurement unit (PMU) has been developed and demonstrated. This method operates in real-time, works passively for any existing PMU without requiring changes to the PMU hardware or software, and it is very accurate - providing a measurement uncertainty of ¡500 ns in many cases, significantly surpassing the 0.002 s accuracy requirement in the most recent IEEE Synchrophasor standard. Only low-cost hardware and open source software are required. It is particularly important to understand end-to-end system latency, including the impact of local and wide-area communications, rather than just the latency of the PMU device; the proposed method also supports such practical measurements. It is therefore shown how this advance can be used to enable efficient, but realistic, cross-domain power system simulation studies, which incorporate measurement and communications delays. These capabilities address complexity and uncertainty in the design and operation of future PMU-based protection and control functions for new smart grid services.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8665864
Pages (from-to)48689-48698
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2019


  • communications
  • phasor measurement units
  • sampled values
  • time synchronization


Dive into the research topics of 'Measurement and analysis of PMU reporting latency for smart grid protection and control applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this