Matrix effects on flavour volatiles release in dark chocolates varying in particle size distribution and fat content using GC-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, A. Paterson, Mark Fowler, Angela Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Influences of matrix particle size distribution (PSD) (18, 25, 35 and 50 μm) and fat content (25%, 30% and 35%) on flavour release of dark chocolate volatiles were quantified by static headspace gas chromatography using GC-MS. Sixty-eight (68) flavour compounds were identified, comprising alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans, pyrans, pyrazines, pyridines, pyroles, phenols, pyrones and thiozoles. From GC-olfactometry, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal had chocolate notes. With cocoa/roasted/nutty notes were trimethyl-, tetramethyl-, 2,3-dimethyl-, 2,5-dimethyl-, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethyl- and 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine and furfuralpyrrole. Compounds with fruity/floral notes included 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol and 5-ethenyltetrahydro-R,R,5-trimethyl-cis-2-furanmethanol. Caramel-like, sweet and honey notes were conferred by 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethylacetate, 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine, 2-carboxaldehyde-1H-pyrrole, furancarboxaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)furanone. There were direct relationships of fat content with 3-methylbutanal and branched pyrazines but inverse ones with 2-phenylethanol, furfuryl alcohol, methylpyrazine, phenylacetaldehyde, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine and 2-carboxaldehyde-1-H-pyrrole. Particle size influenced higher alcohol, aldehyde, ester, ketone and pyrazine concentrations at all fat contents. A multivariate product space suggested flavour effects of the interacting factors.
LanguageEnglish
Pages208-215
Number of pages7
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume113
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009

Fingerprint

furfuryl alcohol
Olfactometry
Pyrazines
pyrazines
olfactometry
Flavors
Base Composition
chocolate
particle size distribution
Particle Size
Particle size analysis
Phenylethyl Alcohol
phenylacetaldehyde
Mass spectrometry
pyrroles
Mass Spectrometry
Pyrroles
furaneol
flavor
Fats

Keywords

  • chocolate
  • cocoa
  • flavour release
  • pyrazines
  • acetic acid
  • GC–MS
  • GC–olfactometry
  • pharmacology

Cite this

@article{94044fa60f09464fbf3df89176cbe24a,
title = "Matrix effects on flavour volatiles release in dark chocolates varying in particle size distribution and fat content using GC-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry",
abstract = "Influences of matrix particle size distribution (PSD) (18, 25, 35 and 50 μm) and fat content (25{\%}, 30{\%} and 35{\%}) on flavour release of dark chocolate volatiles were quantified by static headspace gas chromatography using GC-MS. Sixty-eight (68) flavour compounds were identified, comprising alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans, pyrans, pyrazines, pyridines, pyroles, phenols, pyrones and thiozoles. From GC-olfactometry, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal had chocolate notes. With cocoa/roasted/nutty notes were trimethyl-, tetramethyl-, 2,3-dimethyl-, 2,5-dimethyl-, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethyl- and 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine and furfuralpyrrole. Compounds with fruity/floral notes included 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol and 5-ethenyltetrahydro-R,R,5-trimethyl-cis-2-furanmethanol. Caramel-like, sweet and honey notes were conferred by 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethylacetate, 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine, 2-carboxaldehyde-1H-pyrrole, furancarboxaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)furanone. There were direct relationships of fat content with 3-methylbutanal and branched pyrazines but inverse ones with 2-phenylethanol, furfuryl alcohol, methylpyrazine, phenylacetaldehyde, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine and 2-carboxaldehyde-1-H-pyrrole. Particle size influenced higher alcohol, aldehyde, ester, ketone and pyrazine concentrations at all fat contents. A multivariate product space suggested flavour effects of the interacting factors.",
keywords = "chocolate, cocoa, flavour release, pyrazines, acetic acid, GC–MS, GC–olfactometry, pharmacology",
author = "Afoakwa, {Emmanuel Ohene} and A. Paterson and Mark Fowler and Angela Ryan",
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Matrix effects on flavour volatiles release in dark chocolates varying in particle size distribution and fat content using GC-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry. / Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Paterson, A.; Fowler, Mark; Ryan, Angela.

In: Food Chemistry, Vol. 113, No. 1, 03.2009, p. 208-215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Matrix effects on flavour volatiles release in dark chocolates varying in particle size distribution and fat content using GC-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry

AU - Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

AU - Paterson, A.

AU - Fowler, Mark

AU - Ryan, Angela

PY - 2009/3

Y1 - 2009/3

N2 - Influences of matrix particle size distribution (PSD) (18, 25, 35 and 50 μm) and fat content (25%, 30% and 35%) on flavour release of dark chocolate volatiles were quantified by static headspace gas chromatography using GC-MS. Sixty-eight (68) flavour compounds were identified, comprising alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans, pyrans, pyrazines, pyridines, pyroles, phenols, pyrones and thiozoles. From GC-olfactometry, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal had chocolate notes. With cocoa/roasted/nutty notes were trimethyl-, tetramethyl-, 2,3-dimethyl-, 2,5-dimethyl-, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethyl- and 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine and furfuralpyrrole. Compounds with fruity/floral notes included 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol and 5-ethenyltetrahydro-R,R,5-trimethyl-cis-2-furanmethanol. Caramel-like, sweet and honey notes were conferred by 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethylacetate, 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine, 2-carboxaldehyde-1H-pyrrole, furancarboxaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)furanone. There were direct relationships of fat content with 3-methylbutanal and branched pyrazines but inverse ones with 2-phenylethanol, furfuryl alcohol, methylpyrazine, phenylacetaldehyde, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine and 2-carboxaldehyde-1-H-pyrrole. Particle size influenced higher alcohol, aldehyde, ester, ketone and pyrazine concentrations at all fat contents. A multivariate product space suggested flavour effects of the interacting factors.

AB - Influences of matrix particle size distribution (PSD) (18, 25, 35 and 50 μm) and fat content (25%, 30% and 35%) on flavour release of dark chocolate volatiles were quantified by static headspace gas chromatography using GC-MS. Sixty-eight (68) flavour compounds were identified, comprising alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans, pyrans, pyrazines, pyridines, pyroles, phenols, pyrones and thiozoles. From GC-olfactometry, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal had chocolate notes. With cocoa/roasted/nutty notes were trimethyl-, tetramethyl-, 2,3-dimethyl-, 2,5-dimethyl-, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethyl- and 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine and furfuralpyrrole. Compounds with fruity/floral notes included 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol and 5-ethenyltetrahydro-R,R,5-trimethyl-cis-2-furanmethanol. Caramel-like, sweet and honey notes were conferred by 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethylacetate, 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine, 2-carboxaldehyde-1H-pyrrole, furancarboxaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)furanone. There were direct relationships of fat content with 3-methylbutanal and branched pyrazines but inverse ones with 2-phenylethanol, furfuryl alcohol, methylpyrazine, phenylacetaldehyde, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine and 2-carboxaldehyde-1-H-pyrrole. Particle size influenced higher alcohol, aldehyde, ester, ketone and pyrazine concentrations at all fat contents. A multivariate product space suggested flavour effects of the interacting factors.

KW - chocolate

KW - cocoa

KW - flavour release

KW - pyrazines

KW - acetic acid

KW - GC–MS

KW - GC–olfactometry

KW - pharmacology

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DO - 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.088

M3 - Article

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SN - 0308-8146

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