Mathematical modeling and optimization of hydrogen degassing in an argon-stirred ladle

F. Karouni, B. P. Wynne, J. Talamantes-Silva

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book


A three-phase, transient model for hydrogen degassing of molten steel in an argon-stirred, slag-covered ladle has been developed based on the Eulerian method. The slag layer is treated as a separate phase with bubble coalescence and breakup accounted for using a discrete population balance model. A k-e turbulence model with a bubble induced source term is included along with drag, lift, turbulence dispersion, and wall lubrication submodels for the interfacial force terms. The model predictions are validated using industrial data from a vacuum arc degasser at Sheffield Forgemasters International Ltd. The effect of different ladle design and process parameters are subsequently investigated. Raising the argon injection rate from 0.07 to 0.21 m3min-1 is found to double the hydrogen degassing efficiency. The optimum efficiency is obtained for a porous plug placement at a radial distance of r/R=0.6, which is 24% more efficient than a central plug. A ladle aspect ratio of L/D=2 produces an increase in degassing efficiency of 32% compared to an aspect ratio of L/D=1.25, while the presence of a 10mm slag layer is shown to reduce efficiency by 26% in comparison to a slag free melt.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAISTech 2017 - Proceedings of the Iron and Steel Technology Conference
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781935117643
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017
EventAISTech 2017 Iron and Steel Technology Conference - Nashville, United States
Duration: 8 May 201711 May 2017

Publication series

NameAISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)1551-6997


ConferenceAISTech 2017 Iron and Steel Technology Conference
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • degassing
  • hydrogen
  • modelling
  • population balance
  • slag


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