### Abstract

Language | English |
---|---|

Pages | 247-256 |

Number of pages | 10 |

Journal | Applied Energy |

Volume | 111 |

Issue number | November |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Nov 2013 |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- mathematical description
- measurement
- energy efficiency
- improvement
- verification
- modeling

### Cite this

*Applied Energy*,

*111*(November), 247-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.04.063

}

*Applied Energy*, vol. 111, no. November, pp. 247-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.04.063

**Mathematical description for the measurement and verification of energy efficiency improvement.** / Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mathematical description for the measurement and verification of energy efficiency improvement

AU - Xia, Xiaohua

AU - Zhang, Jiangfeng

PY - 2013/11

Y1 - 2013/11

N2 - Insufficient energy supply is a problem faced by many countries, and energy efficiency improvement is identified as the quickest and most effective solution to this problem. Many energy efficiency projects are therefore initiated to reach various energy saving targets. These energy saving targets need to be measured and verified, and in many countries such a measurement and verification (M&V) activity is guided by the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP). However, M&V is widely regarded as an inaccurate science: an engineering practice relying heavily on professional judgement. This paper presents a mathematical description of the energy efficiency M&V problem and thus casts into a scientific framework the basic M&V concepts, propositions, techniques and methodologies. For this purpose, a general description of energy system modeling is provided to facilitate the discussion, strict mathematical definitions for baseline and baseline adjustment are given, and the M&V plan development is formulated as an M&V modeling problem. An optimal M&V plan is therefore obtained through solving a calculus of variation, or equivalently, an optimal control problem. This approach provides a fruitful source of research problems by which optimal M&V plans under various practical constraints can be determined. With the aid of linear control system models, this mathematical description also provides sufficient conditions for M&V practitioners to determine which one of the four M&V options in IPMVP should be used in a practical M&V project.

AB - Insufficient energy supply is a problem faced by many countries, and energy efficiency improvement is identified as the quickest and most effective solution to this problem. Many energy efficiency projects are therefore initiated to reach various energy saving targets. These energy saving targets need to be measured and verified, and in many countries such a measurement and verification (M&V) activity is guided by the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP). However, M&V is widely regarded as an inaccurate science: an engineering practice relying heavily on professional judgement. This paper presents a mathematical description of the energy efficiency M&V problem and thus casts into a scientific framework the basic M&V concepts, propositions, techniques and methodologies. For this purpose, a general description of energy system modeling is provided to facilitate the discussion, strict mathematical definitions for baseline and baseline adjustment are given, and the M&V plan development is formulated as an M&V modeling problem. An optimal M&V plan is therefore obtained through solving a calculus of variation, or equivalently, an optimal control problem. This approach provides a fruitful source of research problems by which optimal M&V plans under various practical constraints can be determined. With the aid of linear control system models, this mathematical description also provides sufficient conditions for M&V practitioners to determine which one of the four M&V options in IPMVP should be used in a practical M&V project.

KW - mathematical description

KW - measurement

KW - energy efficiency

KW - improvement

KW - verification

KW - modeling

U2 - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.04.063

DO - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.04.063

M3 - Article

VL - 111

SP - 247

EP - 256

JO - Applied Energy

T2 - Applied Energy

JF - Applied Energy

SN - 0306-2619

IS - November

ER -