Main group multiple C-H/N-H bond activation of a diamine and isolation of a molecular dilithium zincate hydride: experimental and DFT evidence for Alkali metal-zinc synergistic effects

Ross Campbell, Daniel Cannon, Pablo Garcia-Alvarez, Alan R. Kennedy, Robert E. Mulvey, Stuart D. Robertson, Joerg Sassmannshausen, Tell Tuttle

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Abstract

The surprising transformation of the saturated diamine (iPr)NHCH2CH2NH(iPr) to the unsaturated diazaethene [(iPr)NCH=CHN(iPr)](2-) via the synergic mixture nBuM, (tBu)(2)Zn and TMEDA (where M = Li, Na; TMEDA = N, N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) has been investigated by multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies and DFT calculations. Several pertinent intermediary and related compounds (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2NH(iPr)]Zn(tBu)(2) (3), (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (5), {(THF)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)}(2) (6), and {(TMEDA)Na[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)}(2) (11), characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, are discussed in relation to their role in the formation of (TMEDA)M[(iPr)NCH=CHN(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (M = Li, 1; Na, 10). In addition, the dilithio zincate molecular hydride [(TMEDA)Li](2)[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)H 7 has been synthesized from the reaction of (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2NH(iPr)]Zn(tBu)(2) 3 with nBuLi(TMEDA) and also characterized by both X-ray crystallographic and NMR spectroscopic studies. The retention of the Li-H bond of 7 in solution was confirmed by Li-7-H-1 HSQC experiments. Also, the Li-7 NMR spectrum of 7 in C6D6 solution allowed for the rare observation of a scalar (1)J(Li-H) coupling constant of 13.3 Hz. Possible mechanisms for the transformation from diamine to diazaethene, a process involving the formal breakage of four bonds, have been determined computationally using density functional theory. The dominant mechanism, starting from (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (4), involves the formation of a hydride intermediate and leads directly to the observed diazaethene product. In addition the existence of 7 in equilibrium with 4 through the dynamic association and dissociation of a (TMEDA)LiH ligand, also provides a secondary mechanism for the formation of the diazaethene. The two reaction pathways (i.e., starting from 4 or 7) are quite distinct and provide excellent examples in which the two distinct metals in the system are able to interact synergically to catalyze this otherwise challenging transformation.

LanguageEnglish
Pages13706-13717
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume133
Issue number34
Early online date21 Jul 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2011

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Alkali Metals
Diamines
Alkali metals
Discrete Fourier transforms
Hydrides
Zinc
Chemical activation
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Density functional theory
Ligands
Association reactions
Single crystals
X ray diffraction
X rays
Metals
phenyllithium
Experiments
Biomolecular Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
X-Ray Diffraction

Keywords

  • directed ortho-metalation
  • halogen-magnesium exchange
  • mixed lithium-cadmium
  • alpha-diimine ligands
  • enantioselective conjugate addition
  • cross-coupling reactions
  • tertiary aromatic amide
  • large-scale preparation
  • sodium TMP-zincate
  • mediated zincation

Cite this

@article{e5a1d41f6e824969bc23cfc0ae697652,
title = "Main group multiple C-H/N-H bond activation of a diamine and isolation of a molecular dilithium zincate hydride: experimental and DFT evidence for Alkali metal-zinc synergistic effects",
abstract = "The surprising transformation of the saturated diamine (iPr)NHCH2CH2NH(iPr) to the unsaturated diazaethene [(iPr)NCH=CHN(iPr)](2-) via the synergic mixture nBuM, (tBu)(2)Zn and TMEDA (where M = Li, Na; TMEDA = N, N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) has been investigated by multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies and DFT calculations. Several pertinent intermediary and related compounds (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2NH(iPr)]Zn(tBu)(2) (3), (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (5), {(THF)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)}(2) (6), and {(TMEDA)Na[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)}(2) (11), characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, are discussed in relation to their role in the formation of (TMEDA)M[(iPr)NCH=CHN(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (M = Li, 1; Na, 10). In addition, the dilithio zincate molecular hydride [(TMEDA)Li](2)[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)H 7 has been synthesized from the reaction of (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2NH(iPr)]Zn(tBu)(2) 3 with nBuLi(TMEDA) and also characterized by both X-ray crystallographic and NMR spectroscopic studies. The retention of the Li-H bond of 7 in solution was confirmed by Li-7-H-1 HSQC experiments. Also, the Li-7 NMR spectrum of 7 in C6D6 solution allowed for the rare observation of a scalar (1)J(Li-H) coupling constant of 13.3 Hz. Possible mechanisms for the transformation from diamine to diazaethene, a process involving the formal breakage of four bonds, have been determined computationally using density functional theory. The dominant mechanism, starting from (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (4), involves the formation of a hydride intermediate and leads directly to the observed diazaethene product. In addition the existence of 7 in equilibrium with 4 through the dynamic association and dissociation of a (TMEDA)LiH ligand, also provides a secondary mechanism for the formation of the diazaethene. The two reaction pathways (i.e., starting from 4 or 7) are quite distinct and provide excellent examples in which the two distinct metals in the system are able to interact synergically to catalyze this otherwise challenging transformation.",
keywords = "directed ortho-metalation, halogen-magnesium exchange, mixed lithium-cadmium, alpha-diimine ligands, enantioselective conjugate addition, cross-coupling reactions, tertiary aromatic amide, large-scale preparation, sodium TMP-zincate, mediated zincation",
author = "Ross Campbell and Daniel Cannon and Pablo Garcia-Alvarez and Kennedy, {Alan R.} and Mulvey, {Robert E.} and Robertson, {Stuart D.} and Joerg Sassmannshausen and Tell Tuttle",
year = "2011",
month = "8",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1021/ja205547h",
language = "English",
volume = "133",
pages = "13706--13717",
journal = "Journal of the American Chemical Society",
issn = "0002-7863",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "34",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Main group multiple C-H/N-H bond activation of a diamine and isolation of a molecular dilithium zincate hydride

T2 - Journal of the American Chemical Society

AU - Campbell, Ross

AU - Cannon, Daniel

AU - Garcia-Alvarez, Pablo

AU - Kennedy, Alan R.

AU - Mulvey, Robert E.

AU - Robertson, Stuart D.

AU - Sassmannshausen, Joerg

AU - Tuttle, Tell

PY - 2011/8/31

Y1 - 2011/8/31

N2 - The surprising transformation of the saturated diamine (iPr)NHCH2CH2NH(iPr) to the unsaturated diazaethene [(iPr)NCH=CHN(iPr)](2-) via the synergic mixture nBuM, (tBu)(2)Zn and TMEDA (where M = Li, Na; TMEDA = N, N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) has been investigated by multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies and DFT calculations. Several pertinent intermediary and related compounds (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2NH(iPr)]Zn(tBu)(2) (3), (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (5), {(THF)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)}(2) (6), and {(TMEDA)Na[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)}(2) (11), characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, are discussed in relation to their role in the formation of (TMEDA)M[(iPr)NCH=CHN(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (M = Li, 1; Na, 10). In addition, the dilithio zincate molecular hydride [(TMEDA)Li](2)[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)H 7 has been synthesized from the reaction of (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2NH(iPr)]Zn(tBu)(2) 3 with nBuLi(TMEDA) and also characterized by both X-ray crystallographic and NMR spectroscopic studies. The retention of the Li-H bond of 7 in solution was confirmed by Li-7-H-1 HSQC experiments. Also, the Li-7 NMR spectrum of 7 in C6D6 solution allowed for the rare observation of a scalar (1)J(Li-H) coupling constant of 13.3 Hz. Possible mechanisms for the transformation from diamine to diazaethene, a process involving the formal breakage of four bonds, have been determined computationally using density functional theory. The dominant mechanism, starting from (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (4), involves the formation of a hydride intermediate and leads directly to the observed diazaethene product. In addition the existence of 7 in equilibrium with 4 through the dynamic association and dissociation of a (TMEDA)LiH ligand, also provides a secondary mechanism for the formation of the diazaethene. The two reaction pathways (i.e., starting from 4 or 7) are quite distinct and provide excellent examples in which the two distinct metals in the system are able to interact synergically to catalyze this otherwise challenging transformation.

AB - The surprising transformation of the saturated diamine (iPr)NHCH2CH2NH(iPr) to the unsaturated diazaethene [(iPr)NCH=CHN(iPr)](2-) via the synergic mixture nBuM, (tBu)(2)Zn and TMEDA (where M = Li, Na; TMEDA = N, N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) has been investigated by multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies and DFT calculations. Several pertinent intermediary and related compounds (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2NH(iPr)]Zn(tBu)(2) (3), (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (5), {(THF)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)}(2) (6), and {(TMEDA)Na[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)}(2) (11), characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, are discussed in relation to their role in the formation of (TMEDA)M[(iPr)NCH=CHN(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (M = Li, 1; Na, 10). In addition, the dilithio zincate molecular hydride [(TMEDA)Li](2)[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu)H 7 has been synthesized from the reaction of (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2NH(iPr)]Zn(tBu)(2) 3 with nBuLi(TMEDA) and also characterized by both X-ray crystallographic and NMR spectroscopic studies. The retention of the Li-H bond of 7 in solution was confirmed by Li-7-H-1 HSQC experiments. Also, the Li-7 NMR spectrum of 7 in C6D6 solution allowed for the rare observation of a scalar (1)J(Li-H) coupling constant of 13.3 Hz. Possible mechanisms for the transformation from diamine to diazaethene, a process involving the formal breakage of four bonds, have been determined computationally using density functional theory. The dominant mechanism, starting from (TMEDA)Li[(iPr)NCH2CH2N(iPr)]Zn(tBu) (4), involves the formation of a hydride intermediate and leads directly to the observed diazaethene product. In addition the existence of 7 in equilibrium with 4 through the dynamic association and dissociation of a (TMEDA)LiH ligand, also provides a secondary mechanism for the formation of the diazaethene. The two reaction pathways (i.e., starting from 4 or 7) are quite distinct and provide excellent examples in which the two distinct metals in the system are able to interact synergically to catalyze this otherwise challenging transformation.

KW - directed ortho-metalation

KW - halogen-magnesium exchange

KW - mixed lithium-cadmium

KW - alpha-diimine ligands

KW - enantioselective conjugate addition

KW - cross-coupling reactions

KW - tertiary aromatic amide

KW - large-scale preparation

KW - sodium TMP-zincate

KW - mediated zincation

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DO - 10.1021/ja205547h

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EP - 13717

JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society

JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society

SN - 0002-7863

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