The existence of locally optimal solutions to the AC optimal power flow problem (OPF) has been a question of interest for decades. This paper presents examples of local optima on a variety of test networks including modified versions of common networks. We show that local optima can occur because the feasible region is disconnected and/or because of nonlinearities in the constraints. Standard local optimization techniques are shown to converge to these local optima. The voltage bounds of all the examples in this paper are between ±5% and ±10% off-nominal. The examples with local optima are available in an online archive (http://www.maths.ed.ac.uk/optenergy/LocalOpt/) and can be used to test local or global optimization techniques for OPF. Finally we use our test examples to illustrate the behavior of a recent semi-definite programming approach that aims to find the global solution of OPF.
- load flow
- global optimization techniques
- optimal power flow