The ability of liposomes and microspheres to enhance the efficacy of a sub-unit antigen was investigated. Microspheres were optimised by testing a range of surfactants employed in the external aqueous phase of a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation process for the preparation of microspheres--composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and the immunological adjuvant dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA)--and then investigated with regard to the physico-chemical and immunological characteristics of the particles produced. The results demonstrate that this parameter can affect the physico-chemical characteristics of these systems and subsequently, has a substantial bearing on the level of immune response achieved, both humoral and cell mediated, when employed for the delivery of the sub-unit tuberculosis vaccine antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6. Moreover, the microsphere preparations investigated failed to initiate immune responses at the levels achieved with an adjuvant DDA-based liposome formulation (DDA-TDB), further substantiating the superior ability of liposomes as vaccine delivery systems.
- adjuvants, immunologic
- cell proliferation
- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
- particle Size