Liposomes act as stronger sub-unit vaccine adjuvants when compared to microspheres

Daniel J Kirby, Ida Rosenkrands, Else M Agger, Peter Andersen, Allan G A Coombes, Yvonne Perrie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The ability of liposomes and microspheres to enhance the efficacy of a sub-unit antigen was investigated. Microspheres were optimised by testing a range of surfactants employed in the external aqueous phase of a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation process for the preparation of microspheres--composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and the immunological adjuvant dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA)--and then investigated with regard to the physico-chemical and immunological characteristics of the particles produced. The results demonstrate that this parameter can affect the physico-chemical characteristics of these systems and subsequently, has a substantial bearing on the level of immune response achieved, both humoral and cell mediated, when employed for the delivery of the sub-unit tuberculosis vaccine antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6. Moreover, the microsphere preparations investigated failed to initiate immune responses at the levels achieved with an adjuvant DDA-based liposome formulation (DDA-TDB), further substantiating the superior ability of liposomes as vaccine delivery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)543-554
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Drug Targeting
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2008


  • adjuvants, immunologic
  • vaccines
  • cell proliferation
  • cytokines
  • enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • particle Size


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