LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) are members of a family of enzymes that catalyse the dephosphorylation of lipid phosphates. The only known form of regulation of this family of enzymes is via de novo expression of LPP isoforms in response to growth factors. In this respect, we evaluated the effect of moderate increases in the expression of recombinant LPP1 on signal transduction by both G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. We present evidence for a novel role of LPP1 in reducing PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)- and lysophosphatidic acid-induced migration of embryonic fibroblasts. We demonstrate that the overexpression of LPP1 inhibits cell migration by reducing the PDGF-induced activation of p42/p44 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). This appears to occur via a mechanism that involves the LPP1-induced down-regulation of typical PKC (protein kinase C) isoform(s), which are normally required for PDGF-induced activation of p42/p44 MAPK and migration. In this regard, DAG (diacylglycerol) levels are high and sustained in cells overexpressing LPP1, suggesting a dynamic interconversion of phosphatidic acid into DAG by LPP1. This may account for the effects of LPP1 on cell migration, as sustained DAG is known to down-regulate PKC isoforms in cells. Therefore the physiological changes in the expression levels of LPP1 might represent a heterologous desensitization mechanism for attenuating PKC-mediated signalling and regulation of cell migration.
- cell migration
- lipid phosphate phosphatase
- lysophosphatidic acid
- p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
- phosphatidic acid
- platelet-derived growth factor