Levelised cost of energy analysis for offshore wind farms – A case study of the New York State development

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In the present work, a comprehensive numerical model was developed to predict the levelised cost of energy (LCOE) for offshore wind farms. A case study is further performed based on the potential developments at the offshore area of the New York State. In the present work, some specific local limitations in the United States are considered by following in line with the present European development experience. A ten-year historical wind data set is used to evaluate the wind farm energy production. The effects of distance to shore, rated power, life span, operation height, farm capacity and seasonal operation plan on LCOE are evaluated. An optimal site giving an LCOE of 123.4 $2018/MWh is found in this paper. In addition, a novel factor named as wind farm energy density (WFED) is suggested in the present study. It shows that when considering the limited coastal area as an issue, a large capacity wind farm may not have good performance compared with a lower capacity wind farm in terms of energy production. The 508 MW wind farm has a better WFED compared with either a 330 MW wind farm or an 800 MW wind farm under the current investigation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number109923
JournalOcean Engineering
Early online date4 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • levelised cost of energy (LCOE)
  • offshore wind farm
  • life cycle analysis
  • LCA


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