### Abstract

A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is constructed on the basis of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ES-BGK) collision operator via the Hermite moment representation. The resulting lattice ES-BGK model uses a single distribution function and features an adjustable Prandtl number. Numerical simulations show that using a moderate discrete velocity set, this model can accurately recover steady and transient solutions of the ES-BGK equation in the slip-flow and early transition regimes in the small Mach number limit that is typical of microscale problems of practical interest. In the transition regime in particular, comparisons with numerical solutions of the ES-BGK model, direct Monte Carlo and low-variance deviational Monte Carlo simulations show

good accuracy for values of the Knudsen number up to approximately 0:5. On the other hand, highly non-equilibrium phenomena characterized by high Mach numbers, such as viscous heating and force-driven Poiseuille flow for large values of the driving force, are more difficult to capture quantitatively in the transition regime using discretizations that have been chosen with computational efficiency in mind such as the one used here, although improved accuracy is observed as the number of discrete velocities is increased.

good accuracy for values of the Knudsen number up to approximately 0:5. On the other hand, highly non-equilibrium phenomena characterized by high Mach numbers, such as viscous heating and force-driven Poiseuille flow for large values of the driving force, are more difficult to capture quantitatively in the transition regime using discretizations that have been chosen with computational efficiency in mind such as the one used here, although improved accuracy is observed as the number of discrete velocities is increased.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 347-370 |

Number of pages | 24 |

Journal | Journal of Fluid Mechanics |

Volume | 718 |

Early online date | 8 Feb 2013 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Mar 2013 |

### Keywords

- thermofluids
- non-equilibrium flows
- BGK model
- lattice model

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## Cite this

Meng, J-P., Zhang, Y., Hadjiconstantinou, N., Radtke, G. A., & Shan, X. (2013). Lattice ellipsoidal statistical BGK model for thermal non-equilibrium flows.

*Journal of Fluid Mechanics*,*718*, 347-370. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2012.616