The Indian pharmaceutical industry has experienced rapid growth, becoming the world’s largest provider of generic drugs, based on product and process innovation. The industry has undergone dynamic changes in recent decades, operating in a rapidly evolving environment affected by domestic and global policies; a key example of the latter is the TRIPS agreement. Taking an intellectual property perspective, we describe how changes in the innovation ecosystem have affected companies’ strategies related to international activity and accessing knowledge from both internal and external knowledge sources, during the transitional- and post-TRIPS periods (1995-2004 and 2005-2014, respectively). Combining intellectual property arguments with contextual aspects of the innovation ecosystem, we conjecture that, in the post-TRIPS period, externally-sourced knowledge will be more important than internally-sourced knowledge, for Indian pharmaceutical firms’ international business activity.
- intellectual property rights
- pharmaceutical industry
- research and development
- international business
- emerging market multinationals
- emerging markets
Sahasranamam, S., Rentala, S., & Rose, E. L. (2019). Knowledge sources and international business activity in a changing innovation ecosystem: a study of the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Management and Organization Review, 15(3), 595-614. https://doi.org/10.1017/mor.2019.35