Contrary to theoretical predictions, female 2-spot ladybirds (Adalia bipunctata) mate many more times than necessary to maintain high fertilisation success and may gain through the acquisition of material or genetic benefits. In order to investigate this mating system in detail, microsatellite markers have been isolated using a modified enrichment technique. Thirty-nine loci were successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of which only two were monomorphic. Detailed characterization of ten loci revealed very high levels of polymorphism. These markers are likely to be invaluable tools with which to study population genetics and patterns of paternity in this species.
- 2-spot ladybird
- adalia bipunctata
- isolation and characterisation
- highly polymorphic microsatellite loci
- mating systems
- paternity analysis