Involvement of reduced glutathione and glutathione reductase in the chronic toxicity of hexavalent chromium to monocytes in vitro

Vijay Krishna Raghunathan, Elizabeth M. Ellis, Justice N.A. Tettey, M. Helen Grant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Cobalt chromium (CoCr) alloy and stainless steel are widely used in orthopaedic implants. Cr(VI) is known to be released when metals corrode in vivo (Milošev et al., 2005) and may be toxic to local cells like osteoblasts and macrophages. Ning and Grant, 2000 J. Ning and M.H. Grant, Toxicol. In Vitro 14 (2000), pp. 329-335. Article | PDF (185 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (25)Ning and Grant (2000) have demonstrated the acute toxicity of Cr(VI) to immortalised rat osteoblasts and shown the involvement of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the interaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of exposure to clinically relevant Cr(VI) concentrations on the human monocyte cell line (U937) over 4 weeks in vitro. U937 cells (1.5 × 106 per ml) were exposed to 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 μM Cr(VI) (chromium oxide) for 4 weeks. Protein and GSH content, GRd expression (SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting) and activity (Carlberg and Mannervik, 1985) were measured. The measured parameters for cells exposed to 0.5 μM Cr(VI) are displayed below in Fig. 1. Lower concentrations of Cr(VI) did not have a significant effect on the parameters measured.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-106
Number of pages1
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007



  • reduced glutathione
  • glutathione reductase
  • chronic toxicity
  • hexavalent chromium
  • monocytes in vitro
  • bioengineering

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