Investigation of the impact of roof configurations on the wind and thermal environment in football stadiums in hot climates

Sam Bonser, Ben Richard Hughes, John Kaiser Calautit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The present study provides an analysis of existing literature encompassing the wind and thermal analysis of football stadia, and how both can be manipulated through the modification of roof geometry. It introduces the potential for cooling strategies to create an internal environment capable of hosting elite-level international football in a hot climate. The motivation for the study stems from an absence of existing literature focussing on thermal flow in hot conditions for stadia and the requirement to investigate the hosting capabilities of Qatar for the 2022 FIFA World Cup. Stadium design plays a crucial role in determining the success of the tournament not only through the month-long event, but also with the legacy it leaves afterwards. To carry out the analysis, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in an effort to produce internal conditions that satisfy official FIFA guidelines on optimal playing conditions in terms of wind and temperature distribution. These are ran on a model validated against existing literature to ensure accuracy, but considering the potential for error between model generations. The conclusions drawn suggest that a downward-pitched, large-radius retractable roof subsidised by the introduction of a mechanical system to create a cooling strategy reduces the external temperature down to 23 °C, with wind velocities not exceeding 4 m/s. Reinforced by results, these desired playing conditions can be achieved by closing the roof to precondition the stadium before an event, with the roof then retracted to ensure compliance with FIFA guidelines. The results from the present study can be a component in achieving a sustained positive legacy for the upcoming FIFA World Cup.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Ventilation
Early online date16 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Stadiums
Roofs
Cooling
Plant shutdowns
Thermoanalysis
Computational fluid dynamics
Temperature distribution
Geometry
Hot Temperature
Computer simulation
Temperature

Keywords

  • building
  • Qatar2022
  • stadium
  • temperature
  • ventilation
  • wind

Cite this

Bonser, Sam ; Hughes, Ben Richard ; Calautit, John Kaiser. / Investigation of the impact of roof configurations on the wind and thermal environment in football stadiums in hot climates. In: International Journal of Ventilation. 2019 ; pp. 1-20.
@article{e992e2a6da274da481285fbc27a831ef,
title = "Investigation of the impact of roof configurations on the wind and thermal environment in football stadiums in hot climates",
abstract = "The present study provides an analysis of existing literature encompassing the wind and thermal analysis of football stadia, and how both can be manipulated through the modification of roof geometry. It introduces the potential for cooling strategies to create an internal environment capable of hosting elite-level international football in a hot climate. The motivation for the study stems from an absence of existing literature focussing on thermal flow in hot conditions for stadia and the requirement to investigate the hosting capabilities of Qatar for the 2022 FIFA World Cup. Stadium design plays a crucial role in determining the success of the tournament not only through the month-long event, but also with the legacy it leaves afterwards. To carry out the analysis, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in an effort to produce internal conditions that satisfy official FIFA guidelines on optimal playing conditions in terms of wind and temperature distribution. These are ran on a model validated against existing literature to ensure accuracy, but considering the potential for error between model generations. The conclusions drawn suggest that a downward-pitched, large-radius retractable roof subsidised by the introduction of a mechanical system to create a cooling strategy reduces the external temperature down to 23 °C, with wind velocities not exceeding 4 m/s. Reinforced by results, these desired playing conditions can be achieved by closing the roof to precondition the stadium before an event, with the roof then retracted to ensure compliance with FIFA guidelines. The results from the present study can be a component in achieving a sustained positive legacy for the upcoming FIFA World Cup.",
keywords = "building, Qatar2022, stadium, temperature, ventilation, wind",
author = "Sam Bonser and Hughes, {Ben Richard} and Calautit, {John Kaiser}",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "16",
doi = "10.1080/14733315.2019.1665861",
language = "English",
pages = "1--20",

}

Investigation of the impact of roof configurations on the wind and thermal environment in football stadiums in hot climates. / Bonser, Sam; Hughes, Ben Richard; Calautit, John Kaiser.

In: International Journal of Ventilation, 16.09.2019, p. 1-20.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Investigation of the impact of roof configurations on the wind and thermal environment in football stadiums in hot climates

AU - Bonser, Sam

AU - Hughes, Ben Richard

AU - Calautit, John Kaiser

PY - 2019/9/16

Y1 - 2019/9/16

N2 - The present study provides an analysis of existing literature encompassing the wind and thermal analysis of football stadia, and how both can be manipulated through the modification of roof geometry. It introduces the potential for cooling strategies to create an internal environment capable of hosting elite-level international football in a hot climate. The motivation for the study stems from an absence of existing literature focussing on thermal flow in hot conditions for stadia and the requirement to investigate the hosting capabilities of Qatar for the 2022 FIFA World Cup. Stadium design plays a crucial role in determining the success of the tournament not only through the month-long event, but also with the legacy it leaves afterwards. To carry out the analysis, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in an effort to produce internal conditions that satisfy official FIFA guidelines on optimal playing conditions in terms of wind and temperature distribution. These are ran on a model validated against existing literature to ensure accuracy, but considering the potential for error between model generations. The conclusions drawn suggest that a downward-pitched, large-radius retractable roof subsidised by the introduction of a mechanical system to create a cooling strategy reduces the external temperature down to 23 °C, with wind velocities not exceeding 4 m/s. Reinforced by results, these desired playing conditions can be achieved by closing the roof to precondition the stadium before an event, with the roof then retracted to ensure compliance with FIFA guidelines. The results from the present study can be a component in achieving a sustained positive legacy for the upcoming FIFA World Cup.

AB - The present study provides an analysis of existing literature encompassing the wind and thermal analysis of football stadia, and how both can be manipulated through the modification of roof geometry. It introduces the potential for cooling strategies to create an internal environment capable of hosting elite-level international football in a hot climate. The motivation for the study stems from an absence of existing literature focussing on thermal flow in hot conditions for stadia and the requirement to investigate the hosting capabilities of Qatar for the 2022 FIFA World Cup. Stadium design plays a crucial role in determining the success of the tournament not only through the month-long event, but also with the legacy it leaves afterwards. To carry out the analysis, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in an effort to produce internal conditions that satisfy official FIFA guidelines on optimal playing conditions in terms of wind and temperature distribution. These are ran on a model validated against existing literature to ensure accuracy, but considering the potential for error between model generations. The conclusions drawn suggest that a downward-pitched, large-radius retractable roof subsidised by the introduction of a mechanical system to create a cooling strategy reduces the external temperature down to 23 °C, with wind velocities not exceeding 4 m/s. Reinforced by results, these desired playing conditions can be achieved by closing the roof to precondition the stadium before an event, with the roof then retracted to ensure compliance with FIFA guidelines. The results from the present study can be a component in achieving a sustained positive legacy for the upcoming FIFA World Cup.

KW - building

KW - Qatar2022

KW - stadium

KW - temperature

KW - ventilation

KW - wind

U2 - 10.1080/14733315.2019.1665861

DO - 10.1080/14733315.2019.1665861

M3 - Article

SP - 1

EP - 20

ER -