Investigating the relative severity of dents in pipelines based on magnetic flux leakage inspection data

Leanne M. Tindall, Julia M. Race, Jane Dawson

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Dent damage in pipelines may result from either impact damage caused by third parties or construction damage. Third party damage generally occurs on the upper half of the pipe (between the 8 o'clock and 4 o'clock positions) and has historically contributed to the highest number of pipeline failures. Dents caused during construction generally occur on the bottom half of the pipe and tend to be constrained by the indenter causing the dent, i.e. a stone or rock in the pipeline bed/backfill. However, all dents have the potential to cause an increase in stress in the pipeline, and consequently increase the pipeline sensitivity to both static and fatigue loading. Although there are extensive recommendations for the ranking and repair of dents, recently, failures of dents that are acceptable to pipeline codes have been reported. Guidance is therefore needed in order that operators can identify dents for which excavation and inspection is uneconomic and could potentially be damaging to pipeline safety and dents for which further action is required. This paper provides a review of the published recommendations for the treatment of pipeline dents and goes on to present a method that is being developed to determine the relative severity of dents in a pipeline using magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal data. The proposed method involves measuring MFL signal parameters related to the geometry of the dent and relating these to high resolution caliper inspection data. This analysis enables a relationship to be established between the MFL signal data and dent depth and shape measurements. Once the model is verified, this analysis can then be used to provide a severity ranking for dents on pipelines where only MFL data is available.

Conference

Conference2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008
Abbreviated title IPC 2008
CountryCanada
CityCalgary, Alberta
Period29/09/083/10/08

Fingerprint

Leakage (fluid)
Magnetic flux
Pipelines
Inspection
Pipeline codes
Clocks
Pipe
Excavation
Repair
Rocks
Fatigue of materials
Geometry

Keywords

  • construction damages
  • during construction
  • fatigue loadings
  • high resolution
  • impact damages
  • indenters
  • magnetic flux leakage
  • magnetic flux leakage inspection
  • pipeline failures
  • pipeline safety
  • shape measurements
  • signal data
  • signal parameters
  • third parties
  • third party damage
  • damage detection
  • leakage (fluid)
  • magnetic leakage
  • magnetic structure
  • pipe
  • pipeline bends
  • pipelines
  • stress analysis
  • pipeline codes

Cite this

Tindall, L. M., Race, J. M., & Dawson, J. (2009). Investigating the relative severity of dents in pipelines based on magnetic flux leakage inspection data. 351-361. Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2008-64229
Tindall, Leanne M. ; Race, Julia M. ; Dawson, Jane. / Investigating the relative severity of dents in pipelines based on magnetic flux leakage inspection data. Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.11 p.
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title = "Investigating the relative severity of dents in pipelines based on magnetic flux leakage inspection data",
abstract = "Dent damage in pipelines may result from either impact damage caused by third parties or construction damage. Third party damage generally occurs on the upper half of the pipe (between the 8 o'clock and 4 o'clock positions) and has historically contributed to the highest number of pipeline failures. Dents caused during construction generally occur on the bottom half of the pipe and tend to be constrained by the indenter causing the dent, i.e. a stone or rock in the pipeline bed/backfill. However, all dents have the potential to cause an increase in stress in the pipeline, and consequently increase the pipeline sensitivity to both static and fatigue loading. Although there are extensive recommendations for the ranking and repair of dents, recently, failures of dents that are acceptable to pipeline codes have been reported. Guidance is therefore needed in order that operators can identify dents for which excavation and inspection is uneconomic and could potentially be damaging to pipeline safety and dents for which further action is required. This paper provides a review of the published recommendations for the treatment of pipeline dents and goes on to present a method that is being developed to determine the relative severity of dents in a pipeline using magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal data. The proposed method involves measuring MFL signal parameters related to the geometry of the dent and relating these to high resolution caliper inspection data. This analysis enables a relationship to be established between the MFL signal data and dent depth and shape measurements. Once the model is verified, this analysis can then be used to provide a severity ranking for dents on pipelines where only MFL data is available.",
keywords = "construction damages, during construction, fatigue loadings, high resolution, impact damages, indenters, magnetic flux leakage, magnetic flux leakage inspection, pipeline failures, pipeline safety, shape measurements, signal data, signal parameters, third parties, third party damage, damage detection, leakage (fluid), magnetic leakage, magnetic structure, pipe, pipeline bends, pipelines, stress analysis, pipeline codes",
author = "Tindall, {Leanne M.} and Race, {Julia M.} and Jane Dawson",
note = "Cosham, A., Hopkins, P., The effect of dents in pipelines - Guidance in the pipeline defect assessment manual (2004) International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 81 (2), p. 127; Rosenfeld, M.J., Pepper, J.W., Leewis, K., Basis of the New Criteria in ASME B31.8 for prioritization and repair of mechanical damage (2002) Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, IPC, , Calgary, Alberta; (2007) Pipeline Safety Incident Reports, , http://www.phmsa.dot.gov, PHMSA Pipeline Safety Program, Pipeline and Hazard Materials Safety Administration, Available from; Davis, P.M., Dubois, J., Olcese, A., Uhlig, F., Lariv{\'e}, J.-F., Martin, D.E., Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines: Statistical summary of reported spillages 2004 (2006) CONCAWE; (2005) EGIG Gas Pipeline Incidents: 6th Report of the European Gas Incident Data Group; Browne, D., Hicks, R., (2005) UKOPA Pipeline Fault Database - Pipeline Product Loss Incidents (1962-2004), , UKOPA Fault Database Management Group; Lyons, D., Western european cross country oil pipelines 30 year performance statistics (2002) CONCAWE, , Report No. 01/02; Baker, M., Dent study (2004) Final Report, TTO Number 10, , Integrity Management Program, Delivery Order DTRS56- 02-D-70036, DOT Research and Special Programs Administration, Office of Pipeline Safety, November; Johnston, D.C., Hrncir, T.G., (2002) Using In-line Inspection to Address Deformations Containing Near-neutral PH Stress Corrosion Cracking, , Calgary, Alta., Canada: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Ironside, S.D., Carroll, L.B., Pipeline dent management program (2002) Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, IPC; McCoy, J., Ironside, S., Dent management program (2004) Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC; Alexander, C.R., Review of experimental and analytical investigations of dented pipelines (1999) American Society of Mechanical Engineers, , Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP; Fowler, J.R., Katsounas, A.T., Boubendier, R., Criteria for dent acceptability of offshore pipelines (1992) PRC1 Report PR-201-927, , Pipeline Research Council International Catalog No. L51671, July; American society of mechanical engineers, ASME B31.8 (2004) Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, , Edition; Lukasiewicz, S.A., Czyz, J.A., Sun, C., Adeeb, S., Calculation of strains in dents based on high resolution in-line caliper survey (2006) International Pipeline Conference, , IPC2006 Paper 10101, Presented at 6th, Calgary; Rosenfeld, M.J., Porter, P.C., Cox, J.A., Strain estimation using vetco deformation tool data (1998) Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, IPC, , Calgary, Can: ASME; Dawson, S.J., Russell, A., Patterson, A., Emerging techniques for enhanced assessment and analysis of dents (2006) International Pipeline Conference, , IPC2006 Paper 10264, Presented at 6th, Calgary; Noronha, D.B., Martins, R.R., Jacob, B.P., Souza, E., The use of B-splines in the assessment of strain levels associated with plain dents (2005) Rio Pipeline 2005 Conference and Exposition, , Paper No.IBP1245-05, Rio de Janeiro, Oct; Warman, D.J., Johnston, D., MacKenzie, J.D., Rapp, S., Travers, B., Management of pipeline dents and mechanical damage in gas pipelines (2006) Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, IPC; American society of mechanical engineers, ASME B31.8 (2007) Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, , Edition; Czyz, J.A., Lukasiewicz, S.A., Sun, C., Adeeb, S., Calculating dent strain (2008) Pipeline and Gas Technology, pp. 38-45. , January/February; Rosenfeld, M.J., (2001) Proposed New Guidelines for ASME B31.8 on Assessment of Dents and Mechanical Damage, , Topical Report GRI-01/0084, Gas Technology Institute; Pipeline safety: Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas (Gas transmission pipeline) (2003) Final Rule, , 49CFR192, Department of Transportation, 15 December; American society of mechanical engineers, ASME B31.4 (1992) Liquid Transportation System for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols, , Edition; Alexander, C.R., Kiefner, J.F., (1997) Effects of Smooth and Rock Dents on Liquid Petroleum Pipelines, , American Petroleum Institute, API 1156, November; Kiefner, J.F., Alexander, C.R., (1999) Effects of Smooth and Rock Dents on Liquid Petroleum Pipelines (Phase II), , American Petroleum Institute, Addendum to API 1156, October; Roovers, P., Bood, R., Galli, M., Maerewski, U., Steiner, M.M., Zarea, M., EPRG methods for assessing the tolerance and resistance of pipelines to external damage Pipeline Technology, Volume II, , Brugge 29/09/00; (1999) Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems, , Z662: Canadian Standards Association; 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, IPC 2008 ; Conference date: 29-09-2008 Through 03-10-2008",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1115/IPC2008-64229",
language = "English",
pages = "351--361",

}

Tindall, LM, Race, JM & Dawson, J 2009, 'Investigating the relative severity of dents in pipelines based on magnetic flux leakage inspection data' Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 29/09/08 - 3/10/08, pp. 351-361. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2008-64229

Investigating the relative severity of dents in pipelines based on magnetic flux leakage inspection data. / Tindall, Leanne M.; Race, Julia M.; Dawson, Jane.

2009. 351-361 Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Investigating the relative severity of dents in pipelines based on magnetic flux leakage inspection data

AU - Tindall, Leanne M.

AU - Race, Julia M.

AU - Dawson, Jane

N1 - Cosham, A., Hopkins, P., The effect of dents in pipelines - Guidance in the pipeline defect assessment manual (2004) International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 81 (2), p. 127; Rosenfeld, M.J., Pepper, J.W., Leewis, K., Basis of the New Criteria in ASME B31.8 for prioritization and repair of mechanical damage (2002) Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, IPC, , Calgary, Alberta; (2007) Pipeline Safety Incident Reports, , http://www.phmsa.dot.gov, PHMSA Pipeline Safety Program, Pipeline and Hazard Materials Safety Administration, Available from; Davis, P.M., Dubois, J., Olcese, A., Uhlig, F., Larivé, J.-F., Martin, D.E., Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines: Statistical summary of reported spillages 2004 (2006) CONCAWE; (2005) EGIG Gas Pipeline Incidents: 6th Report of the European Gas Incident Data Group; Browne, D., Hicks, R., (2005) UKOPA Pipeline Fault Database - Pipeline Product Loss Incidents (1962-2004), , UKOPA Fault Database Management Group; Lyons, D., Western european cross country oil pipelines 30 year performance statistics (2002) CONCAWE, , Report No. 01/02; Baker, M., Dent study (2004) Final Report, TTO Number 10, , Integrity Management Program, Delivery Order DTRS56- 02-D-70036, DOT Research and Special Programs Administration, Office of Pipeline Safety, November; Johnston, D.C., Hrncir, T.G., (2002) Using In-line Inspection to Address Deformations Containing Near-neutral PH Stress Corrosion Cracking, , Calgary, Alta., Canada: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Ironside, S.D., Carroll, L.B., Pipeline dent management program (2002) Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, IPC; McCoy, J., Ironside, S., Dent management program (2004) Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC; Alexander, C.R., Review of experimental and analytical investigations of dented pipelines (1999) American Society of Mechanical Engineers, , Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP; Fowler, J.R., Katsounas, A.T., Boubendier, R., Criteria for dent acceptability of offshore pipelines (1992) PRC1 Report PR-201-927, , Pipeline Research Council International Catalog No. L51671, July; American society of mechanical engineers, ASME B31.8 (2004) Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, , Edition; Lukasiewicz, S.A., Czyz, J.A., Sun, C., Adeeb, S., Calculation of strains in dents based on high resolution in-line caliper survey (2006) International Pipeline Conference, , IPC2006 Paper 10101, Presented at 6th, Calgary; Rosenfeld, M.J., Porter, P.C., Cox, J.A., Strain estimation using vetco deformation tool data (1998) Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, IPC, , Calgary, Can: ASME; Dawson, S.J., Russell, A., Patterson, A., Emerging techniques for enhanced assessment and analysis of dents (2006) International Pipeline Conference, , IPC2006 Paper 10264, Presented at 6th, Calgary; Noronha, D.B., Martins, R.R., Jacob, B.P., Souza, E., The use of B-splines in the assessment of strain levels associated with plain dents (2005) Rio Pipeline 2005 Conference and Exposition, , Paper No.IBP1245-05, Rio de Janeiro, Oct; Warman, D.J., Johnston, D., MacKenzie, J.D., Rapp, S., Travers, B., Management of pipeline dents and mechanical damage in gas pipelines (2006) Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, IPC; American society of mechanical engineers, ASME B31.8 (2007) Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, , Edition; Czyz, J.A., Lukasiewicz, S.A., Sun, C., Adeeb, S., Calculating dent strain (2008) Pipeline and Gas Technology, pp. 38-45. , January/February; Rosenfeld, M.J., (2001) Proposed New Guidelines for ASME B31.8 on Assessment of Dents and Mechanical Damage, , Topical Report GRI-01/0084, Gas Technology Institute; Pipeline safety: Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas (Gas transmission pipeline) (2003) Final Rule, , 49CFR192, Department of Transportation, 15 December; American society of mechanical engineers, ASME B31.4 (1992) Liquid Transportation System for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols, , Edition; Alexander, C.R., Kiefner, J.F., (1997) Effects of Smooth and Rock Dents on Liquid Petroleum Pipelines, , American Petroleum Institute, API 1156, November; Kiefner, J.F., Alexander, C.R., (1999) Effects of Smooth and Rock Dents on Liquid Petroleum Pipelines (Phase II), , American Petroleum Institute, Addendum to API 1156, October; Roovers, P., Bood, R., Galli, M., Maerewski, U., Steiner, M.M., Zarea, M., EPRG methods for assessing the tolerance and resistance of pipelines to external damage Pipeline Technology, Volume II, , Brugge 29/09/00; (1999) Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems, , Z662: Canadian Standards Association

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Dent damage in pipelines may result from either impact damage caused by third parties or construction damage. Third party damage generally occurs on the upper half of the pipe (between the 8 o'clock and 4 o'clock positions) and has historically contributed to the highest number of pipeline failures. Dents caused during construction generally occur on the bottom half of the pipe and tend to be constrained by the indenter causing the dent, i.e. a stone or rock in the pipeline bed/backfill. However, all dents have the potential to cause an increase in stress in the pipeline, and consequently increase the pipeline sensitivity to both static and fatigue loading. Although there are extensive recommendations for the ranking and repair of dents, recently, failures of dents that are acceptable to pipeline codes have been reported. Guidance is therefore needed in order that operators can identify dents for which excavation and inspection is uneconomic and could potentially be damaging to pipeline safety and dents for which further action is required. This paper provides a review of the published recommendations for the treatment of pipeline dents and goes on to present a method that is being developed to determine the relative severity of dents in a pipeline using magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal data. The proposed method involves measuring MFL signal parameters related to the geometry of the dent and relating these to high resolution caliper inspection data. This analysis enables a relationship to be established between the MFL signal data and dent depth and shape measurements. Once the model is verified, this analysis can then be used to provide a severity ranking for dents on pipelines where only MFL data is available.

AB - Dent damage in pipelines may result from either impact damage caused by third parties or construction damage. Third party damage generally occurs on the upper half of the pipe (between the 8 o'clock and 4 o'clock positions) and has historically contributed to the highest number of pipeline failures. Dents caused during construction generally occur on the bottom half of the pipe and tend to be constrained by the indenter causing the dent, i.e. a stone or rock in the pipeline bed/backfill. However, all dents have the potential to cause an increase in stress in the pipeline, and consequently increase the pipeline sensitivity to both static and fatigue loading. Although there are extensive recommendations for the ranking and repair of dents, recently, failures of dents that are acceptable to pipeline codes have been reported. Guidance is therefore needed in order that operators can identify dents for which excavation and inspection is uneconomic and could potentially be damaging to pipeline safety and dents for which further action is required. This paper provides a review of the published recommendations for the treatment of pipeline dents and goes on to present a method that is being developed to determine the relative severity of dents in a pipeline using magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal data. The proposed method involves measuring MFL signal parameters related to the geometry of the dent and relating these to high resolution caliper inspection data. This analysis enables a relationship to be established between the MFL signal data and dent depth and shape measurements. Once the model is verified, this analysis can then be used to provide a severity ranking for dents on pipelines where only MFL data is available.

KW - construction damages

KW - during construction

KW - fatigue loadings

KW - high resolution

KW - impact damages

KW - indenters

KW - magnetic flux leakage

KW - magnetic flux leakage inspection

KW - pipeline failures

KW - pipeline safety

KW - shape measurements

KW - signal data

KW - signal parameters

KW - third parties

KW - third party damage

KW - damage detection

KW - leakage (fluid)

KW - magnetic leakage

KW - magnetic structure

KW - pipe

KW - pipeline bends

KW - pipelines

KW - stress analysis

KW - pipeline codes

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U2 - 10.1115/IPC2008-64229

DO - 10.1115/IPC2008-64229

M3 - Paper

SP - 351

EP - 361

ER -

Tindall LM, Race JM, Dawson J. Investigating the relative severity of dents in pipelines based on magnetic flux leakage inspection data. 2009. Paper presented at 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference, IPC 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2008-64229