Investigating five key predictive text entry with combined distance and keystroke modelling

Mark D. Dunlop, Michelle Montgomery Masters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)
89 Downloads (Pure)


This paper investigates text entry on mobile devices using only five-keys. Primarily to support text entry on smaller devices than mobile phones, this method can also be used to maximise screen space on mobile phones. Reported combined Fitt's law and keystroke modelling predicts similar performance with bigram prediction using a five-key keypad as is currently achieved on standard mobile phones using unigram prediction. User studies reported here show similar user performance on five-key pads as found elsewhere for novice nine-key pad users.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)589-598
Number of pages9
JournalPersonal and Ubiquitous Computing
Issue number8
Early online date10 Aug 2007
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2008



  • predictive text entry
  • user modelling
  • user testing
  • mobile phones
  • ubiquitous computing

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