International spillover and rebound effects from increased energy efficiency in Germany

Karen Turner, Kim Swales, Simon Koesler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)
70 Downloads (Pure)


The pollution/energy leakage literature raises the concern that policies implemented in one country, such as a carbon tax or tight energy restrictions, might simply result in the reallocation of energy use to other countries. This paper addresses these concerns in the context of policies to increase energy efficiency, rather than direct action to reduce energy use. Using a global CGE simulation model, we extend the analyses of ‘economy-wide’ rebound from the national focus of previous studies to incorporate international spill-over effects from trade in goods and services. Our focus is to investigate whether these effects have the potential to increase or reduce the overall (global) rebound of local energy efficiency improvements. In the case we consider, increased energy efficiency in German production generates changes in comparative advantage that produce negative leakage effects, thereby actually rendering global rebound less than national rebound.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444–452
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Economics
Publication statusPublished - 29 Feb 2016


  • energy supply
  • energy and pollution leakage
  • trade spillover
  • general equilibrium
  • energy efficiency
  • rebound effects
  • energy demand


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