Intentional weld defect process: from manufacturing by ‎‎robotic welding machine to inspection ‎using TFM phased ‎‎array ‎

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Specimens with intentionally embedded weld defects or flaws can be employed for training, ‎development and research into ‎procedures for mechanical property evaluation and ‎structural integrity assessment. It is critical that the artificial defects are ‎a realistic ‎representation of the flaws produced by welding. Cylindrical holes, which are usually ‎machined after welding, ‎are not realistic enough for our purposes as it is known that they ‎are easier to detect than the naturally occurring ‎imperfections and cracks. Furthermore, it is ‎usually impractical to machine a defect in a location similar to where the real ‎weld defects ‎are found. For example, electro-discharge machining can produce a through hole ‎‎(cylindrical reflector) which ‎neither represents the weld porosity (spherical voids) nor the ‎weld crack (planar thin voids).‎‏ ‏In this study, the aim is to ‎embed reflectors inside the weld intentionally, and then locate ‎them using ultrasonic phased array imaging. The specimen is ‎an 8 mm thick 080A15 ‎Bright Drawn Steel plate of length 300 mm. Tungsten rods (ø2.4-3.2 mm & length 20-25 ‎mm) and ‎tungsten carbide balls (ø4 mm) will be used to serve as reflectors simulating ‎defects within the weld itself. This study is ‎aligned to a larger research project investigating ‎multi-layer metal NDE found in many multi-pass welding and wire arc ‎additive ‎manufacturing (WAAM) applications and as such, there is no joint preparation as the first ‎layer is deposited over ‎the plate surface directly and subsequent layers contribute to the ‎specimen build profile, similar to the WAAM samples. A ‎tungsten inert gas welding torch ‎mounted on a KUKA robot is used to deposit four layers for each weld, with our process ‎‎using nine passes for the first layer, down to six passes for the last layer. During this procedure, ‎the tungsten artificial ‎reflectors are embedded in the weld, between the existing layers. The ‎sample is then inspected by a 10 MHz ultrasonic ‎phased array in direct contact with the ‎sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) imaging ‎‎techniques. A phased array aperture of 32 elements has been used. The phased array ‎controller is FIToolbox (Diagnostic ‎Sonar, UK). Firstly, a focused B-scan has been ‎performed with a range of settings for the transmit focal depth. Secondly, a ‎full-aperture ‎TFM method has been processed. All the reflectors of interest were detected successfully ‎using this ‎combination of B-scan and TFM imaging approaches.‎
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publication45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation
EditorsSimon Laflamme, Stephen Holland, Leonard J. Bond
Place of PublicationMelville, NY.
ISBN (Electronic)9780735418325
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 May 2019
Event45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, QNDE 2018 - Burlington, United States
Duration: 15 Jul 201819 Jul 2018

Conference

Conference45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, QNDE 2018
CountryUnited States
CityBurlington
Period15/07/1819/07/18

Fingerprint

Welding machines
Welds
Robotics
Inspection
Defects
3D printers
Tungsten
Welding
Imaging techniques
Ultrasonics
Wire
Inert gas welding
Cracks
Electric discharge machining
Tungsten carbide
Sonar
Structural integrity
Deposits
Porosity
Robots

Keywords

  • wire + arc additive manufacture (WAAM)‎
  • total focusing method (TFM)‎
  • intentional weld defects

Cite this

Javadi, Yashar ; Vasilev, Momchil ; MacLeod, Charles N. ; Pierce, Stephen G. ; Su, Riliang ; Mineo, Carmelo ; Dziewierz, Jerzy ; Gachagan, Anthony. / Intentional weld defect process : from manufacturing by ‎‎robotic welding machine to inspection ‎using TFM phased ‎‎array ‎. 45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation. editor / Simon Laflamme ; Stephen Holland ; Leonard J. Bond. Melville, NY., 2019.
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title = "Intentional weld defect process: from manufacturing by ‎‎robotic welding machine to inspection ‎using TFM phased ‎‎array ‎",
abstract = "Specimens with intentionally embedded weld defects or flaws can be employed for training, ‎development and research into ‎procedures for mechanical property evaluation and ‎structural integrity assessment. It is critical that the artificial defects are ‎a realistic ‎representation of the flaws produced by welding. Cylindrical holes, which are usually ‎machined after welding, ‎are not realistic enough for our purposes as it is known that they ‎are easier to detect than the naturally occurring ‎imperfections and cracks. Furthermore, it is ‎usually impractical to machine a defect in a location similar to where the real ‎weld defects ‎are found. For example, electro-discharge machining can produce a through hole ‎‎(cylindrical reflector) which ‎neither represents the weld porosity (spherical voids) nor the ‎weld crack (planar thin voids).‎‏ ‏In this study, the aim is to ‎embed reflectors inside the weld intentionally, and then locate ‎them using ultrasonic phased array imaging. The specimen is ‎an 8 mm thick 080A15 ‎Bright Drawn Steel plate of length 300 mm. Tungsten rods ({\o}2.4-3.2 mm & length 20-25 ‎mm) and ‎tungsten carbide balls ({\o}4 mm) will be used to serve as reflectors simulating ‎defects within the weld itself. This study is ‎aligned to a larger research project investigating ‎multi-layer metal NDE found in many multi-pass welding and wire arc ‎additive ‎manufacturing (WAAM) applications and as such, there is no joint preparation as the first ‎layer is deposited over ‎the plate surface directly and subsequent layers contribute to the ‎specimen build profile, similar to the WAAM samples. A ‎tungsten inert gas welding torch ‎mounted on a KUKA robot is used to deposit four layers for each weld, with our process ‎‎using nine passes for the first layer, down to six passes for the last layer. During this procedure, ‎the tungsten artificial ‎reflectors are embedded in the weld, between the existing layers. The ‎sample is then inspected by a 10 MHz ultrasonic ‎phased array in direct contact with the ‎sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) imaging ‎‎techniques. A phased array aperture of 32 elements has been used. The phased array ‎controller is FIToolbox (Diagnostic ‎Sonar, UK). Firstly, a focused B-scan has been ‎performed with a range of settings for the transmit focal depth. Secondly, a ‎full-aperture ‎TFM method has been processed. All the reflectors of interest were detected successfully ‎using this ‎combination of B-scan and TFM imaging approaches.‎",
keywords = "wire + arc additive manufacture (WAAM)‎, total focusing method (TFM)‎, intentional weld defects",
author = "Yashar Javadi and Momchil Vasilev and MacLeod, {Charles N.} and Pierce, {Stephen G.} and Riliang Su and Carmelo Mineo and Jerzy Dziewierz and Anthony Gachagan",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1063/1.5099761",
language = "English",
editor = "Simon Laflamme and Stephen Holland and Bond, {Leonard J.}",
booktitle = "45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation",

}

Javadi, Y, Vasilev, M, MacLeod, CN, Pierce, SG, Su, R, Mineo, C, Dziewierz, J & Gachagan, A 2019, Intentional weld defect process: from manufacturing by ‎‎robotic welding machine to inspection ‎using TFM phased ‎‎array ‎. in S Laflamme, S Holland & LJ Bond (eds), 45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation., 040011, Melville, NY., 45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, QNDE 2018, Burlington, United States, 15/07/18. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5099761

Intentional weld defect process : from manufacturing by ‎‎robotic welding machine to inspection ‎using TFM phased ‎‎array ‎. / Javadi, Yashar; Vasilev, Momchil; MacLeod, Charles N.; Pierce, Stephen G.; Su, Riliang; Mineo, Carmelo; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Gachagan, Anthony.

45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation. ed. / Simon Laflamme; Stephen Holland; Leonard J. Bond. Melville, NY., 2019. 040011.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

TY - GEN

T1 - Intentional weld defect process

T2 - from manufacturing by ‎‎robotic welding machine to inspection ‎using TFM phased ‎‎array ‎

AU - Javadi, Yashar

AU - Vasilev, Momchil

AU - MacLeod, Charles N.

AU - Pierce, Stephen G.

AU - Su, Riliang

AU - Mineo, Carmelo

AU - Dziewierz, Jerzy

AU - Gachagan, Anthony

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N2 - Specimens with intentionally embedded weld defects or flaws can be employed for training, ‎development and research into ‎procedures for mechanical property evaluation and ‎structural integrity assessment. It is critical that the artificial defects are ‎a realistic ‎representation of the flaws produced by welding. Cylindrical holes, which are usually ‎machined after welding, ‎are not realistic enough for our purposes as it is known that they ‎are easier to detect than the naturally occurring ‎imperfections and cracks. Furthermore, it is ‎usually impractical to machine a defect in a location similar to where the real ‎weld defects ‎are found. For example, electro-discharge machining can produce a through hole ‎‎(cylindrical reflector) which ‎neither represents the weld porosity (spherical voids) nor the ‎weld crack (planar thin voids).‎‏ ‏In this study, the aim is to ‎embed reflectors inside the weld intentionally, and then locate ‎them using ultrasonic phased array imaging. The specimen is ‎an 8 mm thick 080A15 ‎Bright Drawn Steel plate of length 300 mm. Tungsten rods (ø2.4-3.2 mm & length 20-25 ‎mm) and ‎tungsten carbide balls (ø4 mm) will be used to serve as reflectors simulating ‎defects within the weld itself. This study is ‎aligned to a larger research project investigating ‎multi-layer metal NDE found in many multi-pass welding and wire arc ‎additive ‎manufacturing (WAAM) applications and as such, there is no joint preparation as the first ‎layer is deposited over ‎the plate surface directly and subsequent layers contribute to the ‎specimen build profile, similar to the WAAM samples. A ‎tungsten inert gas welding torch ‎mounted on a KUKA robot is used to deposit four layers for each weld, with our process ‎‎using nine passes for the first layer, down to six passes for the last layer. During this procedure, ‎the tungsten artificial ‎reflectors are embedded in the weld, between the existing layers. The ‎sample is then inspected by a 10 MHz ultrasonic ‎phased array in direct contact with the ‎sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) imaging ‎‎techniques. A phased array aperture of 32 elements has been used. The phased array ‎controller is FIToolbox (Diagnostic ‎Sonar, UK). Firstly, a focused B-scan has been ‎performed with a range of settings for the transmit focal depth. Secondly, a ‎full-aperture ‎TFM method has been processed. All the reflectors of interest were detected successfully ‎using this ‎combination of B-scan and TFM imaging approaches.‎

AB - Specimens with intentionally embedded weld defects or flaws can be employed for training, ‎development and research into ‎procedures for mechanical property evaluation and ‎structural integrity assessment. It is critical that the artificial defects are ‎a realistic ‎representation of the flaws produced by welding. Cylindrical holes, which are usually ‎machined after welding, ‎are not realistic enough for our purposes as it is known that they ‎are easier to detect than the naturally occurring ‎imperfections and cracks. Furthermore, it is ‎usually impractical to machine a defect in a location similar to where the real ‎weld defects ‎are found. For example, electro-discharge machining can produce a through hole ‎‎(cylindrical reflector) which ‎neither represents the weld porosity (spherical voids) nor the ‎weld crack (planar thin voids).‎‏ ‏In this study, the aim is to ‎embed reflectors inside the weld intentionally, and then locate ‎them using ultrasonic phased array imaging. The specimen is ‎an 8 mm thick 080A15 ‎Bright Drawn Steel plate of length 300 mm. Tungsten rods (ø2.4-3.2 mm & length 20-25 ‎mm) and ‎tungsten carbide balls (ø4 mm) will be used to serve as reflectors simulating ‎defects within the weld itself. This study is ‎aligned to a larger research project investigating ‎multi-layer metal NDE found in many multi-pass welding and wire arc ‎additive ‎manufacturing (WAAM) applications and as such, there is no joint preparation as the first ‎layer is deposited over ‎the plate surface directly and subsequent layers contribute to the ‎specimen build profile, similar to the WAAM samples. A ‎tungsten inert gas welding torch ‎mounted on a KUKA robot is used to deposit four layers for each weld, with our process ‎‎using nine passes for the first layer, down to six passes for the last layer. During this procedure, ‎the tungsten artificial ‎reflectors are embedded in the weld, between the existing layers. The ‎sample is then inspected by a 10 MHz ultrasonic ‎phased array in direct contact with the ‎sample surface using both conventional and total focusing method (TFM) imaging ‎‎techniques. A phased array aperture of 32 elements has been used. The phased array ‎controller is FIToolbox (Diagnostic ‎Sonar, UK). Firstly, a focused B-scan has been ‎performed with a range of settings for the transmit focal depth. Secondly, a ‎full-aperture ‎TFM method has been processed. All the reflectors of interest were detected successfully ‎using this ‎combination of B-scan and TFM imaging approaches.‎

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KW - total focusing method (TFM)‎

KW - intentional weld defects

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Javadi Y, Vasilev M, MacLeod CN, Pierce SG, Su R, Mineo C et al. Intentional weld defect process: from manufacturing by ‎‎robotic welding machine to inspection ‎using TFM phased ‎‎array ‎. In Laflamme S, Holland S, Bond LJ, editors, 45th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation. Melville, NY. 2019. 040011 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5099761