Intelligent humanoids in manufacturing to address worker shortage and skill gaps: case of Tesla's Optimus

Ali Ahmad Malik, Tariq Masood, Alexander Brem

Research output: Working paperWorking Paper/Preprint

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Technological evolution in the field of robotics is emerging with major breakthroughs in recent years. This was especially fostered by revolutionary new software applications leading to humanoid robots. Humanoids are being envisioned for manufacturing applications to form human-robot teams. But their implication in manufacturing practices especially for industrial safety standards and lean manufacturing practices have been minimally addressed. Humanoids will also be competing with conventional robotic arms and effective methods to assess their return on investment are needed. To study the next generation of industrial automation, we used the case context of the Tesla humanoid robot. The company has recently unveiled its project on an intelligent humanoid robot named Optimus to achieve an increased level of manufacturing automation. This article proposes a framework to integrate humanoids for manufacturing automation and also presents the significance of safety standards of human-robot collaboration. A case of lean assembly cell for the manufacturing of an open-source medical ventilator was used for human-humanoid automation. Simulation results indicate that humanoids can increase the level of manufacturing automation. Managerial and research implications are presented.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationGlasgow
PublisherUniversity of Strathclyde
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2023


  • robotics and autonomous systems
  • robotics
  • artificial intelligence
  • manufacturing engineering
  • humanoids
  • intelligence
  • intelligent manufacturing
  • Tesla
  • Optimus
  • worker shortage
  • skills gap


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