Simulation models for water distribution networks are used routinely for many purposes. Some examples are planning, design, monitoring and control. However, under conditions of low pressure, the conventional models that employ demand-driven analysis often provide misleading results. On the other hand, almost all the models that employ pressure-driven analysis do not perform dynamic and/or water quality simulations seamlessly. Typically, they exclude key elements such as pumps, control devices and tanks. EPANET-PDX is a pressure-driven extension of the EPANET 2 simulation model that preserved the capabilities of EPANET 2 including water quality modelling. However, it cannot simulate multiple chemical substances at once. The single-species approach to water quality modelling is inefficient and somewhat unrealistic. The reason is that different chemical substances may co-exist in water distribution networks. This article proposes a fully integrated network analysis model (EPANET-PMX) (pressure-dependent multi-species extension) that addresses these weaknesses. The model performs both steady state and dynamic simulations. It is applicable to any network with various combinations of chemical reactions and reaction kinetics. Examples that demonstrate its effectiveness are included.
- water distribution network
- water quality modelling
- disinfection and disinfection by-products
- drinking water standards
- pressure-driven analysis
- reaction kinetics
Seyoum, A. G., & Tanyimboh, T. T. (2017). Integration of hydraulic and water quality modelling in distribution networks: EPANET-PMX. Water Resources Management, 31(14), 4485-4503. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-017-1760-0