Integrated wafer scale growth of single crystal metal films and high quality graphene

Oliver J. Burton, Fabien C-P. Massabuau, Vlad-Petru Veigang-Radulescu, Barry Brennen, Andrew J. Pollard, Stephan Hofmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


We report on an approach to bring together single crystal metal catalyst preparation and graphene growth in a combined process flow using a standard cold-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. We employ a sandwich arrangement between a commercial polycrystalline Cu foil and c-plane sapphire wafer and show that close-spaced vacuum sublimation across the confined gap can result in an epitaxial, single-crystal Cu(111) film at high growth rate. The arrangement is scalable (we demonstrate 2″ wafer scale) and suppresses reactor contamination with Cu. While starting with an impure Cu foil, the freshly prepared Cu film is of high purity as measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. We seamlessly connect the initial metallization with subsequent graphene growth via the introduction of hydrogen and gaseous carbon precursors, thereby eliminating contamination due to substrate transfer and common lengthy catalyst pretreatments. We show that the sandwich approach also enables for a Cu surface with nanometer scale roughness during graphene growth and thus results in high quality graphene similar to previously demonstrated Cu enclosure approaches. We systematically explore the parameter space and discuss the opportunities, including subsequent dry transfer, generality, and versatility of our approach particularly regarding the cost-efficient preparation of different single crystal film orientations and expansion to other material systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13593-13601
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Issue number10
Early online date1 Oct 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Oct 2020


  • single crystal
  • Cu
  • copper
  • epitaxial metal film
  • graphene
  • 2D material
  • chemical vapor deposition

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