Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-5 is up regulated during both differentiation and apoptosis in primary cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells

R.B. Abu-Rajab, B.W. Stansfield, T. Nunn, A.C. Nicol, I.G. Kelly

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    This study evaluated the effect on movement under load of three different techniques for re-attachment of the tuberosities of the humerus using test sawbones. In the first, the tuberosities were attached both to the shaft and to each other, with one cerclage suture through the anterior hole in the prosthesis. The second technique was identical except for omission of the cerclage suture and in the third the tuberosities were attached to the prosthesis and to the shaft. An orthogonal photogrammetric system allowed all segments to be tracked in a 3D axis system. The humeri were incrementally-loaded in abduction, and the 3D linear and angular movements of all segments were calculated. Displacement between the tuberosities and the shaft was measured. The first and second techniques were the most stable constructs, with the third allowing greater separation of fragments and angular movement. Separation at the midpoint of the tuberosities was significantly greater using the latter technique (p < 0.05). The cerclage suture added no further stability to the fixation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1539-1544
    Number of pages5
    JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - 2006


    • insulin-like growth factor
    • binding protein
    • apoptosis
    • primary cultures
    • epithelial cells
    • bioengineering

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