Insect repellent [correction of repellant] interactions: sunscreens enhance DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) absorption

Edward A Ross, Kathleen A Savage, Luke J Utley, Ian R Tebbett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Toxicology studies are typically performed on single compounds, which we hypothesized would miss adverse synergies from chemical mixtures. This hypothesis was tested using an insect repellant and sunscreens because both groups include known permeation enhancers, with prior pediatric reports of toxicity from highly concentrated DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide). Using real-time mass spectroscopy in a hairless mouse skin model, we confirmed substantial penetration of a 20% DEET standard. Despite a lower (10%) DEET content, a commercially marketed sunscreen formulation had a 6-fold more rapid detection (5 versus 30 min) and 3.4-fold greater penetration at steady state. We also tested the efficacy of DEET microemulsion products and confirmed that one successfully slowed the onset of absorption, but not the steady-state permeation. Risks from mixtures of potential toxins are worthy of routine testing, which can be accomplished by simple assays, and are of utmost importance for pediatric applications.
LanguageEnglish
Pages783-785
Number of pages3
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Volume32
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2004

Fingerprint

Insect Repellents
DEET
Sunscreening Agents
Pediatrics
Hairless Mouse
Toxicology
Insects
Mass Spectrometry
Skin

Keywords

  • animals
  • DEET
  • drug synergism
  • insect repellents
  • mice
  • hairless mice
  • skin
  • skin absorption
  • sunscreening agents

Cite this

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title = "Insect repellent [correction of repellant] interactions: sunscreens enhance DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) absorption",
abstract = "Toxicology studies are typically performed on single compounds, which we hypothesized would miss adverse synergies from chemical mixtures. This hypothesis was tested using an insect repellant and sunscreens because both groups include known permeation enhancers, with prior pediatric reports of toxicity from highly concentrated DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide). Using real-time mass spectroscopy in a hairless mouse skin model, we confirmed substantial penetration of a 20{\%} DEET standard. Despite a lower (10{\%}) DEET content, a commercially marketed sunscreen formulation had a 6-fold more rapid detection (5 versus 30 min) and 3.4-fold greater penetration at steady state. We also tested the efficacy of DEET microemulsion products and confirmed that one successfully slowed the onset of absorption, but not the steady-state permeation. Risks from mixtures of potential toxins are worthy of routine testing, which can be accomplished by simple assays, and are of utmost importance for pediatric applications.",
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Insect repellent [correction of repellant] interactions : sunscreens enhance DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) absorption. / Ross, Edward A; Savage, Kathleen A; Utley, Luke J; Tebbett, Ian R.

In: Drug Metabolism and Disposition, Vol. 32, No. 8, 01.08.2004, p. 783-785.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Insect repellent [correction of repellant] interactions

T2 - Drug Metabolism and Disposition

AU - Ross, Edward A

AU - Savage, Kathleen A

AU - Utley, Luke J

AU - Tebbett, Ian R

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AB - Toxicology studies are typically performed on single compounds, which we hypothesized would miss adverse synergies from chemical mixtures. This hypothesis was tested using an insect repellant and sunscreens because both groups include known permeation enhancers, with prior pediatric reports of toxicity from highly concentrated DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide). Using real-time mass spectroscopy in a hairless mouse skin model, we confirmed substantial penetration of a 20% DEET standard. Despite a lower (10%) DEET content, a commercially marketed sunscreen formulation had a 6-fold more rapid detection (5 versus 30 min) and 3.4-fold greater penetration at steady state. We also tested the efficacy of DEET microemulsion products and confirmed that one successfully slowed the onset of absorption, but not the steady-state permeation. Risks from mixtures of potential toxins are worthy of routine testing, which can be accomplished by simple assays, and are of utmost importance for pediatric applications.

KW - animals

KW - DEET

KW - drug synergism

KW - insect repellents

KW - mice

KW - hairless mice

KW - skin

KW - skin absorption

KW - sunscreening agents

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