Influence of tempering and fat crystallization behaviours on microstructural and melting properties in dark chocolate systems

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, A. Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Particle size distribution (PSD) and temper influences on dark chocolate fat crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy to establish relationships with their melting properties and microstructure. Variations in PSD had no influence on crystallinity of products at all temper regimes. Particle size (PS) increases had limited effects on Tonset, Tpeak, and -Hmelt independent of temper regime but significant decreases in Tend and Tindex were noted. Contrary, varying temper regime influenced the crystallinity and melting properties (Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt) of products. Under-tempered chocolate showed widened crystal size distribution (CSD) with significant changes in Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt of products. Over-tempering caused moderate increases in CSD and melting properties, with significant effect on Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt but no changes were noted in Tonset, Tpeak of products. Fat-sugar melting profiles showed similar levels in all products independent of temper regime, suggesting fat and sugar components are present in similar amounts in under-, over- and optimally-tempered products. Micrographs revealed clear crystalline network structure and well defined inter-crystal networks among tempered and over-tempered samples. Under-tempered products showed re-arrangement and re-crystallization of unstable fat crystals to smaller numbers of larger agglomerates with formation of solid bridges between the crystalline network structures. Attainment of optimal temper regime during pre-crystallization of dark chocolate is necessary for the achievement of premium quality products and avoidance of defects in structure and melting character.
LanguageEnglish
Pages200-209
Number of pages9
JournalFood Research International
Volume42
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2009

Fingerprint

tempering
chocolate
crystallization
Crystallization
melting
Freezing
Fats
crystals
Particle Size
lipids
particle size distribution
sugars
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
differential scanning calorimetry
product quality
microstructure
particle size
Microscopy
microscopy
Chocolate

Keywords

  • differential scanning calorimetry
  • tempering
  • fat crystallization
  • melting properties
  • particle size distribution
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • chocolate

Cite this

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene ; Paterson, A. ; Fowler, Mark ; Vieira, Joselio. / Influence of tempering and fat crystallization behaviours on microstructural and melting properties in dark chocolate systems. In: Food Research International. 2009 ; Vol. 42, No. 1. pp. 200-209.
@article{75c456eb17bf4e6daada50f8d92bc6d5,
title = "Influence of tempering and fat crystallization behaviours on microstructural and melting properties in dark chocolate systems",
abstract = "Particle size distribution (PSD) and temper influences on dark chocolate fat crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy to establish relationships with their melting properties and microstructure. Variations in PSD had no influence on crystallinity of products at all temper regimes. Particle size (PS) increases had limited effects on Tonset, Tpeak, and -Hmelt independent of temper regime but significant decreases in Tend and Tindex were noted. Contrary, varying temper regime influenced the crystallinity and melting properties (Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt) of products. Under-tempered chocolate showed widened crystal size distribution (CSD) with significant changes in Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt of products. Over-tempering caused moderate increases in CSD and melting properties, with significant effect on Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt but no changes were noted in Tonset, Tpeak of products. Fat-sugar melting profiles showed similar levels in all products independent of temper regime, suggesting fat and sugar components are present in similar amounts in under-, over- and optimally-tempered products. Micrographs revealed clear crystalline network structure and well defined inter-crystal networks among tempered and over-tempered samples. Under-tempered products showed re-arrangement and re-crystallization of unstable fat crystals to smaller numbers of larger agglomerates with formation of solid bridges between the crystalline network structures. Attainment of optimal temper regime during pre-crystallization of dark chocolate is necessary for the achievement of premium quality products and avoidance of defects in structure and melting character.",
keywords = "differential scanning calorimetry, tempering, fat crystallization, melting properties, particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, chocolate",
author = "Afoakwa, {Emmanuel Ohene} and A. Paterson and Mark Fowler and Joselio Vieira",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.foodres.2008.10.007",
language = "English",
volume = "42",
pages = "200--209",
journal = "Food Research International",
issn = "0963-9969",
number = "1",

}

Influence of tempering and fat crystallization behaviours on microstructural and melting properties in dark chocolate systems. / Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Paterson, A.; Fowler, Mark; Vieira, Joselio.

In: Food Research International, Vol. 42, No. 1, 01.2009, p. 200-209.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Influence of tempering and fat crystallization behaviours on microstructural and melting properties in dark chocolate systems

AU - Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

AU - Paterson, A.

AU - Fowler, Mark

AU - Vieira, Joselio

PY - 2009/1

Y1 - 2009/1

N2 - Particle size distribution (PSD) and temper influences on dark chocolate fat crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy to establish relationships with their melting properties and microstructure. Variations in PSD had no influence on crystallinity of products at all temper regimes. Particle size (PS) increases had limited effects on Tonset, Tpeak, and -Hmelt independent of temper regime but significant decreases in Tend and Tindex were noted. Contrary, varying temper regime influenced the crystallinity and melting properties (Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt) of products. Under-tempered chocolate showed widened crystal size distribution (CSD) with significant changes in Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt of products. Over-tempering caused moderate increases in CSD and melting properties, with significant effect on Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt but no changes were noted in Tonset, Tpeak of products. Fat-sugar melting profiles showed similar levels in all products independent of temper regime, suggesting fat and sugar components are present in similar amounts in under-, over- and optimally-tempered products. Micrographs revealed clear crystalline network structure and well defined inter-crystal networks among tempered and over-tempered samples. Under-tempered products showed re-arrangement and re-crystallization of unstable fat crystals to smaller numbers of larger agglomerates with formation of solid bridges between the crystalline network structures. Attainment of optimal temper regime during pre-crystallization of dark chocolate is necessary for the achievement of premium quality products and avoidance of defects in structure and melting character.

AB - Particle size distribution (PSD) and temper influences on dark chocolate fat crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy to establish relationships with their melting properties and microstructure. Variations in PSD had no influence on crystallinity of products at all temper regimes. Particle size (PS) increases had limited effects on Tonset, Tpeak, and -Hmelt independent of temper regime but significant decreases in Tend and Tindex were noted. Contrary, varying temper regime influenced the crystallinity and melting properties (Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt) of products. Under-tempered chocolate showed widened crystal size distribution (CSD) with significant changes in Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt of products. Over-tempering caused moderate increases in CSD and melting properties, with significant effect on Tend, Tindex and -Hmelt but no changes were noted in Tonset, Tpeak of products. Fat-sugar melting profiles showed similar levels in all products independent of temper regime, suggesting fat and sugar components are present in similar amounts in under-, over- and optimally-tempered products. Micrographs revealed clear crystalline network structure and well defined inter-crystal networks among tempered and over-tempered samples. Under-tempered products showed re-arrangement and re-crystallization of unstable fat crystals to smaller numbers of larger agglomerates with formation of solid bridges between the crystalline network structures. Attainment of optimal temper regime during pre-crystallization of dark chocolate is necessary for the achievement of premium quality products and avoidance of defects in structure and melting character.

KW - differential scanning calorimetry

KW - tempering

KW - fat crystallization

KW - melting properties

KW - particle size distribution

KW - scanning electron microscopy

KW - chocolate

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.10.007

U2 - 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.10.007

DO - 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.10.007

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 200

EP - 209

JO - Food Research International

T2 - Food Research International

JF - Food Research International

SN - 0963-9969

IS - 1

ER -