Inequality and crime across England: a multilevel modelling approach

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The link between inequality and negative social outcomes has been the subject of much debate recently, brought into focus by the publication of The Spirit Level. This article uses multilevel modelling to explore the relationship between inequality and five crime types at sub-national level across England. Controlling for other factors, inequality is positively associated with higher levels of all five crime types and findings are robust to alternative inequality specifications. Findings support the sociological – but not economic – theories and highlight the importance of policies to tackle broader social and economic inequalities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-40
Number of pages14
JournalSocial Policy and Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2011


  • inequality
  • crime
  • England
  • negative social outcomes
  • multilevel models


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