Individual variability of venom from the European adder (Vipera berus berus) from one locality in Eastern Hungary

Tamás Malina, László Krecsák, Alexander Westerström, Gábor Szemán-Nagy, Gyöngyi Gyémánt, Márta M-Hamvas, Edward G. Rowan, Alan L. Harvey, David A. Warrell, Balázs Pál, Zoltán Rusznák, Gábor Vasas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We have revealed intra-population variability among venom samples from several individual European adders (Vipera berus berus) within a defined population in Eastern Hungary. Individual differences in venom pattern were noticed, both gender-specific and age-related, by one-dimensional electrophoresis. Gelatin zymography demonstrated that these individual venoms have different degradation profiles indicating varying protease activity in the specimens from adders of different ages and genders. Some specimens shared a conserved region of substrate degradation, while others had lower or extremely low protease activity. Phospholipase A2 activity of venoms was similar but not identical. Interspecimen diversity of the venom phospholipase A2-spectra (based on the components' molecular masses) was detected by MALDI-TOF MS. The lethal toxicity of venoms (LD50) also showed differences among individual snakes. Extracted venom samples had varying neuromuscular paralysing effect on chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparations. The paralysing effect of venom was lost when calcium in the physiological salt solution was replaced by strontium; indicating that the block of twitch responses to nerve stimulation is associated with the activity of a phospholipase-dependent neurotoxin. In contrast to the studied V. b. berus venoms from different geographical regions so far, this is the first V. b. berus population discovered to have predominantly neurotoxic neuromuscular activity. The relevance of varying venom yields is also discussed. This study demonstrates that individual venom variation among V. b. berus living in particular area of Eastern Hungary might contribute to a wider range of clinical manifestations of V. b. berus envenoming than elsewhere in Europe.

LanguageEnglish
Pages59-70
Number of pages12
JournalToxicon
Volume135
Early online date9 Jun 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017

Fingerprint

Hungary
Adders
Venoms
Viperidae
Phospholipases A2
Individuality
Peptide Hydrolases
Neuromuscular Agents
Population
Geographical regions
Degradation
Strontium
Snakes
Phospholipases
Neuromuscular Junction
Lethal Dose 50
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Neurotoxins
Molecular mass
Gelatin

Keywords

  • intra-species venom variation
  • neurotoxic
  • phospholipase A(2)
  • protease
  • vipera berus berus

Cite this

Malina, T., Krecsák, L., Westerström, A., Szemán-Nagy, G., Gyémánt, G., M-Hamvas, M., ... Vasas, G. (2017). Individual variability of venom from the European adder (Vipera berus berus) from one locality in Eastern Hungary. Toxicon, 135, 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.06.004
Malina, Tamás ; Krecsák, László ; Westerström, Alexander ; Szemán-Nagy, Gábor ; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi ; M-Hamvas, Márta ; Rowan, Edward G. ; Harvey, Alan L. ; Warrell, David A. ; Pál, Balázs ; Rusznák, Zoltán ; Vasas, Gábor. / Individual variability of venom from the European adder (Vipera berus berus) from one locality in Eastern Hungary. In: Toxicon. 2017 ; Vol. 135. pp. 59-70.
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abstract = "We have revealed intra-population variability among venom samples from several individual European adders (Vipera berus berus) within a defined population in Eastern Hungary. Individual differences in venom pattern were noticed, both gender-specific and age-related, by one-dimensional electrophoresis. Gelatin zymography demonstrated that these individual venoms have different degradation profiles indicating varying protease activity in the specimens from adders of different ages and genders. Some specimens shared a conserved region of substrate degradation, while others had lower or extremely low protease activity. Phospholipase A2 activity of venoms was similar but not identical. Interspecimen diversity of the venom phospholipase A2-spectra (based on the components' molecular masses) was detected by MALDI-TOF MS. The lethal toxicity of venoms (LD50) also showed differences among individual snakes. Extracted venom samples had varying neuromuscular paralysing effect on chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparations. The paralysing effect of venom was lost when calcium in the physiological salt solution was replaced by strontium; indicating that the block of twitch responses to nerve stimulation is associated with the activity of a phospholipase-dependent neurotoxin. In contrast to the studied V. b. berus venoms from different geographical regions so far, this is the first V. b. berus population discovered to have predominantly neurotoxic neuromuscular activity. The relevance of varying venom yields is also discussed. This study demonstrates that individual venom variation among V. b. berus living in particular area of Eastern Hungary might contribute to a wider range of clinical manifestations of V. b. berus envenoming than elsewhere in Europe.",
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Malina, T, Krecsák, L, Westerström, A, Szemán-Nagy, G, Gyémánt, G, M-Hamvas, M, Rowan, EG, Harvey, AL, Warrell, DA, Pál, B, Rusznák, Z & Vasas, G 2017, 'Individual variability of venom from the European adder (Vipera berus berus) from one locality in Eastern Hungary' Toxicon, vol. 135, pp. 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.06.004

Individual variability of venom from the European adder (Vipera berus berus) from one locality in Eastern Hungary. / Malina, Tamás; Krecsák, László; Westerström, Alexander; Szemán-Nagy, Gábor; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; M-Hamvas, Márta; Rowan, Edward G.; Harvey, Alan L.; Warrell, David A.; Pál, Balázs; Rusznák, Zoltán; Vasas, Gábor.

In: Toxicon, Vol. 135, 01.09.2017, p. 59-70.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Individual variability of venom from the European adder (Vipera berus berus) from one locality in Eastern Hungary

AU - Malina, Tamás

AU - Krecsák, László

AU - Westerström, Alexander

AU - Szemán-Nagy, Gábor

AU - Gyémánt, Gyöngyi

AU - M-Hamvas, Márta

AU - Rowan, Edward G.

AU - Harvey, Alan L.

AU - Warrell, David A.

AU - Pál, Balázs

AU - Rusznák, Zoltán

AU - Vasas, Gábor

N1 - Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2017/9/1

Y1 - 2017/9/1

N2 - We have revealed intra-population variability among venom samples from several individual European adders (Vipera berus berus) within a defined population in Eastern Hungary. Individual differences in venom pattern were noticed, both gender-specific and age-related, by one-dimensional electrophoresis. Gelatin zymography demonstrated that these individual venoms have different degradation profiles indicating varying protease activity in the specimens from adders of different ages and genders. Some specimens shared a conserved region of substrate degradation, while others had lower or extremely low protease activity. Phospholipase A2 activity of venoms was similar but not identical. Interspecimen diversity of the venom phospholipase A2-spectra (based on the components' molecular masses) was detected by MALDI-TOF MS. The lethal toxicity of venoms (LD50) also showed differences among individual snakes. Extracted venom samples had varying neuromuscular paralysing effect on chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparations. The paralysing effect of venom was lost when calcium in the physiological salt solution was replaced by strontium; indicating that the block of twitch responses to nerve stimulation is associated with the activity of a phospholipase-dependent neurotoxin. In contrast to the studied V. b. berus venoms from different geographical regions so far, this is the first V. b. berus population discovered to have predominantly neurotoxic neuromuscular activity. The relevance of varying venom yields is also discussed. This study demonstrates that individual venom variation among V. b. berus living in particular area of Eastern Hungary might contribute to a wider range of clinical manifestations of V. b. berus envenoming than elsewhere in Europe.

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KW - intra-species venom variation

KW - neurotoxic

KW - phospholipase A(2)

KW - protease

KW - vipera berus berus

UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041010117301848

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DO - 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.06.004

M3 - Article

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Malina T, Krecsák L, Westerström A, Szemán-Nagy G, Gyémánt G, M-Hamvas M et al. Individual variability of venom from the European adder (Vipera berus berus) from one locality in Eastern Hungary. Toxicon. 2017 Sep 1;135:59-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.06.004