Inclusive genetic programming

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The promotion and maintenance of the population diversity in a Genetic Programming (GP) algorithm was proved to be an important part of the evolutionary process. Such diversity maintenance improves the exploration capabilities of the GP algorithm, which as a consequence improves the quality of the found solutions by avoiding local optima. This paper aims to further investigate and prove the efficacy of a GP heuristic proposed in a previous work: the Inclusive Genetic Programming (IGP). Such heuristic can be classified as a niching technique, which performs the evolutionary operations like crossover, mutation and selection by considering the individuals belonging to different niches in order to maintain and exploit a certain degree of diversity in the population, instead of evolving the niches separately to find different local optima. A comparison between a standard formulation of GP and the IGP is carried out on nine different benchmarks coming from synthetic and real world data. The obtained results highlight how the greater diversity in the population, measured in terms of entropy, leads to better results on both training and test data, showing that an improvement on the generalization capabilities is also achieved.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGenetic Programming
Subtitle of host publication24th European Conference, EuroGP 2021, Held as Part of EvoStar 2021, Virtual Event, April 7–9, 2021, Proceedings
EditorsTing Hu, Nuno Lourenço, Eric Medvet
PublisherSpringer International Publishing AG
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9783030728120
ISBN (Print)9783030728113
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2021
Event24th European Conference on Genetic Programming - Virtual, Sevilla, Spain
Duration: 7 Apr 20219 Apr 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12691 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference24th European Conference on Genetic Programming
Abbreviated titleEuroGP 2021
Internet address


  • genetic programming
  • population diversity
  • entropy benchmarks
  • symbolic regression


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