Inactivation of Streptomyces phage ɸC31 by 405 nm light: requirement for exogenous photosensitizers?

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Abstract

Exposure to narrowband violet-blue light around 405 nm wavelength can induce lethal oxidative damage to bacteria and fungi, however effects on viruses are unknown. As photosensitive porphyrin molecules are involved in the microbicidal inactivation mechanism, and since porphyrins are absent in viruses, then any damaging effects of 405 nm light on viruses might appear unlikely. This study used the bacteriophage ɸC31, as a surrogate for non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses, to establish whether 405 nm light can induce virucidal effects. Exposure of ɸC31 suspended in minimal media, nutrient-rich media, and porphyrin solution, demonstrated differing sensitivity of the phage. Significant reductions in phage titre occurred when exposed in nutrient-rich media, with ~3, 5 and 7-log10 reductions achieved after exposure to doses of 0.3, 0.5 and 1.4 kJ/cm2, respectively. When suspended in minimal media a 0.3 log10 reduction (P=0.012) occurred after exposure to 306 J/cm2: much lower than the 2.7 and >2.5 log10 reductions achieved with the same dose in nutrient-rich, and porphyrin-supplemented media, suggesting inactivation is accelerated by the photo-activation of light-sensitive components in the media. This study provides the first evidence of the interaction of narrowband 405 nm light with viruses, and demonstrates that viral susceptibility to 405 nm light can be significantly enhanced by involvement of exogenous photosensitive components. The reduced susceptibility of viruses in minimal media, compared to that of other microorganisms, provides further evidence that the antimicrobial action of 405 nm light is predominantly due to the photo-excitation of endogenous photosensitive molecules such as porphyrins within susceptible microorganisms.
LanguageEnglish
Article numbere32129
Number of pages6
JournalBacteriophage
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2014

Fingerprint

Bacteriophages
Photosensitizing Agents
Photosensitizers
Streptomyces
Viruses
Porphyrins
Light
Nutrients
Food
Microorganisms
Viola
Molecules
DNA Viruses
Photoexcitation
Fungi
Bacteria
DNA
Chemical activation
Wavelength

Keywords

  • inactivation
  • streptomyces
  • exogenous photosensitizers
  • narrowband violet-blue light
  • oxidative damage
  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • bacteriophage ɸC31
  • exogenous photosensitive components
  • porphyrins
  • susceptible microorganisms

Cite this

@article{6060d01934a24fb8be47ea76466bb5b2,
title = "Inactivation of Streptomyces phage ɸC31 by 405 nm light: requirement for exogenous photosensitizers?",
abstract = "Exposure to narrowband violet-blue light around 405 nm wavelength can induce lethal oxidative damage to bacteria and fungi, however effects on viruses are unknown. As photosensitive porphyrin molecules are involved in the microbicidal inactivation mechanism, and since porphyrins are absent in viruses, then any damaging effects of 405 nm light on viruses might appear unlikely. This study used the bacteriophage ɸC31, as a surrogate for non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses, to establish whether 405 nm light can induce virucidal effects. Exposure of ɸC31 suspended in minimal media, nutrient-rich media, and porphyrin solution, demonstrated differing sensitivity of the phage. Significant reductions in phage titre occurred when exposed in nutrient-rich media, with ~3, 5 and 7-log10 reductions achieved after exposure to doses of 0.3, 0.5 and 1.4 kJ/cm2, respectively. When suspended in minimal media a 0.3 log10 reduction (P=0.012) occurred after exposure to 306 J/cm2: much lower than the 2.7 and >2.5 log10 reductions achieved with the same dose in nutrient-rich, and porphyrin-supplemented media, suggesting inactivation is accelerated by the photo-activation of light-sensitive components in the media. This study provides the first evidence of the interaction of narrowband 405 nm light with viruses, and demonstrates that viral susceptibility to 405 nm light can be significantly enhanced by involvement of exogenous photosensitive components. The reduced susceptibility of viruses in minimal media, compared to that of other microorganisms, provides further evidence that the antimicrobial action of 405 nm light is predominantly due to the photo-excitation of endogenous photosensitive molecules such as porphyrins within susceptible microorganisms.",
keywords = "inactivation, streptomyces, exogenous photosensitizers, narrowband violet-blue light, oxidative damage , bacteria , fungi, bacteriophage ɸC31, exogenous photosensitive components, porphyrins, susceptible microorganisms",
author = "Tomb, {Rachael M} and Michelle MacLean and Herron, {Paul R} and Hoskisson, {Paul A} and MacGregor, {Scott J} and Anderson, {John G}",
note = "This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Bacteriophage on 28/07/2014, available online: http://wwww.tandfonline.com/10.4161/bact.32129",
year = "2014",
month = "7",
day = "28",
doi = "10.4161/bact.32129",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
journal = "Bacteriophage",
issn = "2159-7073",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inactivation of Streptomyces phage ɸC31 by 405 nm light

T2 - Bacteriophage

AU - Tomb, Rachael M

AU - MacLean, Michelle

AU - Herron, Paul R

AU - Hoskisson, Paul A

AU - MacGregor, Scott J

AU - Anderson, John G

N1 - This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Bacteriophage on 28/07/2014, available online: http://wwww.tandfonline.com/10.4161/bact.32129

PY - 2014/7/28

Y1 - 2014/7/28

N2 - Exposure to narrowband violet-blue light around 405 nm wavelength can induce lethal oxidative damage to bacteria and fungi, however effects on viruses are unknown. As photosensitive porphyrin molecules are involved in the microbicidal inactivation mechanism, and since porphyrins are absent in viruses, then any damaging effects of 405 nm light on viruses might appear unlikely. This study used the bacteriophage ɸC31, as a surrogate for non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses, to establish whether 405 nm light can induce virucidal effects. Exposure of ɸC31 suspended in minimal media, nutrient-rich media, and porphyrin solution, demonstrated differing sensitivity of the phage. Significant reductions in phage titre occurred when exposed in nutrient-rich media, with ~3, 5 and 7-log10 reductions achieved after exposure to doses of 0.3, 0.5 and 1.4 kJ/cm2, respectively. When suspended in minimal media a 0.3 log10 reduction (P=0.012) occurred after exposure to 306 J/cm2: much lower than the 2.7 and >2.5 log10 reductions achieved with the same dose in nutrient-rich, and porphyrin-supplemented media, suggesting inactivation is accelerated by the photo-activation of light-sensitive components in the media. This study provides the first evidence of the interaction of narrowband 405 nm light with viruses, and demonstrates that viral susceptibility to 405 nm light can be significantly enhanced by involvement of exogenous photosensitive components. The reduced susceptibility of viruses in minimal media, compared to that of other microorganisms, provides further evidence that the antimicrobial action of 405 nm light is predominantly due to the photo-excitation of endogenous photosensitive molecules such as porphyrins within susceptible microorganisms.

AB - Exposure to narrowband violet-blue light around 405 nm wavelength can induce lethal oxidative damage to bacteria and fungi, however effects on viruses are unknown. As photosensitive porphyrin molecules are involved in the microbicidal inactivation mechanism, and since porphyrins are absent in viruses, then any damaging effects of 405 nm light on viruses might appear unlikely. This study used the bacteriophage ɸC31, as a surrogate for non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses, to establish whether 405 nm light can induce virucidal effects. Exposure of ɸC31 suspended in minimal media, nutrient-rich media, and porphyrin solution, demonstrated differing sensitivity of the phage. Significant reductions in phage titre occurred when exposed in nutrient-rich media, with ~3, 5 and 7-log10 reductions achieved after exposure to doses of 0.3, 0.5 and 1.4 kJ/cm2, respectively. When suspended in minimal media a 0.3 log10 reduction (P=0.012) occurred after exposure to 306 J/cm2: much lower than the 2.7 and >2.5 log10 reductions achieved with the same dose in nutrient-rich, and porphyrin-supplemented media, suggesting inactivation is accelerated by the photo-activation of light-sensitive components in the media. This study provides the first evidence of the interaction of narrowband 405 nm light with viruses, and demonstrates that viral susceptibility to 405 nm light can be significantly enhanced by involvement of exogenous photosensitive components. The reduced susceptibility of viruses in minimal media, compared to that of other microorganisms, provides further evidence that the antimicrobial action of 405 nm light is predominantly due to the photo-excitation of endogenous photosensitive molecules such as porphyrins within susceptible microorganisms.

KW - inactivation

KW - streptomyces

KW - exogenous photosensitizers

KW - narrowband violet-blue light

KW - oxidative damage

KW - bacteria

KW - fungi

KW - bacteriophage ɸC31

KW - exogenous photosensitive components

KW - porphyrins

KW - susceptible microorganisms

UR - https://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/bacteriophage/

U2 - 10.4161/bact.32129

DO - 10.4161/bact.32129

M3 - Article

VL - 4

JO - Bacteriophage

JF - Bacteriophage

SN - 2159-7073

IS - 3

M1 - e32129

ER -