In vivo real-time multiphoton imaging of T lymphocytes in the mouse brain after experimental stroke

Stefano Fumagalli, Jonathan A Coles, Patrick Ejlerskov, Fabrizio Ortolano, Trevor J Bushell, James M Brewer, Maria-Grazia De Simoni, Gary Dever, Paul Garside, Pasquale Maffia, Hilary V Carswell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To gain a better understanding of T cell behavior after stroke, we have developed real-time in vivo brain imaging of T cells by multiphoton microscopy after middle cerebral artery occlusion.

METHODS: Adult male hCD2-GFP transgenic mice that exhibit green fluorescent protein-labeled T cells underwent permanent left distal middle cerebral artery occlusion by electrocoagulation (n=6) or sham surgery (n=6) and then multiphoton laser imaging 72 hours later.

RESULTS: Extravasated T cell number significantly increased after middle cerebral artery occlusion versus sham. Two T cell populations existed after middle cerebral artery occlusion, possibly driven by 2 T cell subpopulations; 1 had significantly lower and the other significantly higher track velocity and displacement rate than sham.

CONCLUSIONS: The different motilities and behaviors of T cells observed using our imaging approach after stroke could reveal important mechanisms of immune surveillance for future therapeutic exploitations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1429-1436
Number of pages8
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2011


  • Animals
  • Brain
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred CBA
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton
  • Stroke
  • T-Lymphocytes


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