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Methods: A series of antibody-functionalized gold nanoprobes (BFNP) were designed containing unique Raman signals in order to detect intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and P-selectin using SERS.
Results: SERS and BFNP were utilized to detect, discriminate and quantify ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and P-selectin in vitro on human endothelial cells and ex vivo in human coronary arteries. Ultimately, non-invasive multiplex imaging of adhesion molecules in a humanized mouse model was demonstrated in vivo following intravenous injection of the nanoprobes.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that multiplexed SERS-based molecular imaging can indicate the status of vascular inflammation in vivo and gives promise for SERS as a clinical imaging technique for cardiovascular disease in the future.
|Number of pages||15|
|Early online date||29 Nov 2018|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 29 Nov 2018|
- molecular imaging
- vascular inflammation
- surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)