The nasal route offers an attractive means of delivering a drug directly to the systemic circulation and avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism, although rapid mucociliary clearance can be detrimental to nasal absorption. The in vitro and in vivo characteristics of a nasal insert formulation prepared by lyophilisation of a viscous HPMC gel solution designed to overcome this problem were studied. In vitro release of nicotine from the lyophilised insert was compared with powder and spray formulations. Stability and characterisation studies were carried out using dynamic vapour sorption, scanning electron microscopy and HPLC analysis. Nicotine formulations were administered to eight wether sheep in a randomised four-way cross-over study, and plasma nicotine assessed comparing the nasal insert formulation with conventional nasal powder, nasal spray and IV doses. In vitro release studies demonstrated prolonged nicotine release from the nasal insert formulation compared to a powder and liquid. In vivo plasma profiles appeared to show prolonged plasma nicotine levels compared to the conventional formulations, although Tmax, Cmax and AUC parameters for the insert were not significantly different due to high variability in the pharmacokinetic data. In conclusion, the nasal insert displayed a promising prolonged plasma profile, which must be investigated further to provide statistical significance to prove the effect.
McInnes, F. J., Thapa, P., Baillie, A. J., Welling, P., Watson, D. G., Gibson, I., ... Stevens, H. (2005). In vivo evaluation of nicotine lyophilised nasal insert in sheep. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 304(1-2), 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2005.07.025