Improving the practical application of the Delphi method in group-based judgment: a six-step prescription for a well-founded and defensible process

Ian Belton, Alice MacDonald, George Wright, Iain Hamlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper provides a practical, systematic approach to the design and delivery of a Delphi survey. We prescribe a sequence of six steps to do with (i) setting up the Delphi process – including selecting respondents and generating a requisite number of focal issues, (ii) software/delivery choice, (iii) developing question items and response scales, (iv) providing feedback between a requisite number of Delphi rounds, (v) preventing and dealing with panellist drop out, and (vi) analysing and presenting the Delphi yield. At each step, the Delphi administrator has a range of choice options and we provide discussion of the pros and cons of each option - in order that the overall design and delivery of a particular Delphi survey is both well-founded and defensible.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-82
Number of pages11
JournalTechnological Forecasting and Social Change
Early online date19 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2019



  • Delphi
  • review
  • methodology
  • judgement
  • expert
  • consensus

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