Cucumbers have been anecdotally claimed to have anti-inflammatory activity for a long time, but the active principle was not identified. idoBR1, (2R,3R,4R,5S)-3,4,5-trihydroxypiperidine-2-carboxylic acid, is an iminosugar amino acid isolated from fruits of certain cucumbers, Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae). It has no chromophore and analytically behaves like an amino acid making detection and identification difficult. It has anti-inflammatory activity reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in THP-1 cells and ex vivo human blood. It showed selective inhibition of human α-l-iduronidase and sialidases from both bacteria (Tannerella forsythia) and human THP-1 cells. idoBR1 and cucumber extract reduced the binding of hyaluronic acid (HA) to CD44 in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells and may function as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting induced sialidase involved in the production of functionally active HA adhesive CD44. Similar to the related iminosugars, idoBR1 is excreted unchanged in urine following consumption. Its importance in the diet should be further evaluated.
- Cucumber Cucumis sativus
- anti-inflammatory agents
- 1, (2R,3R,4R,5S)-3,4,5-trihydroxypiperidine-2-carboxylic acid