Identification of atropine-and P2X1 receptor antagonist-reistant, neurogenic contractions of the urinary bladder

Charles Kennedy, Paul N. Tasker, Gemma Gallagher, Timothy D. Westfall

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Acetylcholine and ATP are excitatory cotransmitters in parasympathetic nerves. We used P2X1 receptor antagonists to further characterize the purinergic component of neurotransmission in isolated detrusor muscle of guinea pig urinary bladder. In the presence of atropine (1 μm) and prazosin (100 nm), pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid (PPADS) (0.1–100 μm) and suramin (1–300 μm) inhibited contractions evoked by 4 Hz nerve stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 6.9 and 13.4 μm, respectively). Maximum inhibition was 50–60%, which was unaffected by coadministration of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156 (6-N,N-diethyl-d-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP) (100 μm). The remaining responses were abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 μm). PPADS and suramin also reduced contractions to exogenous ATP (300 μm) by 40–50%, but abolished those to the P2X1 agonist α,β-methyleneATP (α,β-meATP) (1 μm). The P2X1 antagonists reactive blue 2, NF279 (8,8′-[carbonylbis(imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid), MRS2159 (pyridoxal-α5-phosphate-6-phenylazo-4′-carboxylic acid) (100 μm), and NF449 [4,4′,4,4-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriylbis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid] (3 μm) abolished contractions to α,β-meATP (1 μm; n = 4–5), but only reduced contractions evoked by 4 Hz nerve stimulation by ∼40–60% (n = 4–6) and ATP by 30–60% (n = 4–7). However, prolonged exposure to α,β-meATP (50 μm) abolished contractions evoked by all three stimuli (n = 5–12). PPADS (100 μm) and suramin (300 μm) reduced the peak neurogenic contraction of the mouse urinary bladder to 30–40% of control. At the same concentrations, the P2X1 antagonists abolished the nonadrenergic, purinergic component of neurogenic contractions in the guinea pig vas deferens (n = 4–5). Thus, P2X1 receptor antagonists inhibit, but do not abolish, the noncholinergic component of neurogenic contractions of guinea pig and mouse urinary bladder, indicating a second mode of action of neuronally released ATP. This has important implications for treatment of dysfunctional urinary bladder, for which this atropine- and P2X1 antagonist-resistant site represents a novel therapeutic target.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)845-851
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2007


  • parasympathetic
  • urinary bladder
  • noncholinergic
  • ATP
  • P2X1 receptor
  • P2X4 receptor


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