Hydrogeochemistry and water quality index for groundwater sustainability in the Komadugu-Yobe Basin, Sahel Region

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The assessment of hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality is crucial for environmental sustainability in developing economies. This study employed hydrogeochemical analysis, geospatial analysis, and groundwater quality index to assess hydrogeochemical processes and quality of groundwater in the Komadugu-Yobe basin. The pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and electrical conductivity (EC) were assessed in situ using a handheld portable electrical conductivity meter. The concentrations of the major cations (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+), were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The major anions (chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate) were analyzed via ion chromatography (IC). Total alkalinity and bicarbonate were measured in situ using a HACH digital alkalinity kit by the titrimetric method. Hydrochemical results indicate some physicochemical properties of the groundwater samples exceeded the maximum permissible limits as recommended by the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water. Gibbs diagrams indicate rock–water interaction/rock weathering processes are the dominant mechanisms influencing the groundwater chemistry. Groundwater is predominantly Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 water type, constituting 59% of the groundwater samples analyzed. The groundwater quality index (GWQI) depicted 63 and 27% of the groundwater samples as excellent and good water types for drinking purposes, respectively. This study further relates the interaction between geology, hydrochemical characteristics, and groundwater quality parameters. The results are essential to inform a sustainable management strategy and protection of groundwater resources.
Original languageEnglish
Article number601
Number of pages22
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2024


  • groundwater sustainability
  • geospatial analysis
  • water quality index
  • SDG 6
  • groundwater evolution


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