Hydrogen vs batteries: comparative safety assessments for a high-speed passenger ferry

Foivos Mylonopoulos, Evangelos Boulougouris, Nikoletta L. Trivyza, Alexandros Priftis, Michail Cheliotis, Haibin Wang, Guangyu Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
77 Downloads (Pure)


Batteries and hydrogen constitute two of the most promising solutions for decarbonising international shipping. This paper presents the comparison between a battery and a proton-exchange membrane hydrogen fuel cell version of a high-speed catamaran ferry with a main focus on safety. The systems required for each version are properly sized and fitted according to the applicable rules, and their impact on the overall design is discussed. Hazards for both designs were identified; frequency and consequence indexes for them were input qualitatively, following Novel Technology Qualification and SOLAS Alternative Designs and Arrangements, while certain risk control options were proposed in order to reduce the risks of the most concerned accidental events. The highest ranked risks were analysed by quantitative risk assessments in PyroSim software. The gas dispersion analysis performed for the hydrogen version indicated that it is crucial for the leakage in the fuel cell room to be stopped within 1 s after being detected to prevent the formation of explosive masses under full pipe rupture of 33 mm diameter, even with 120 air changes per hour. For the battery version, the smoke/fire simulation in the battery room indicated that the firefighting system could achieve a 30% reduction in fire duration, with firedoors closed and ventilation shut, compared to the scenario without a firefighting system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2919
Number of pages24
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2022


  • liquefied hydrogen
  • batteries
  • high-speed ferry
  • safety
  • hazard identification
  • quantitative risk assessments


Dive into the research topics of 'Hydrogen vs batteries: comparative safety assessments for a high-speed passenger ferry'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this