Hydrogen transport and rationalization of porosity formation during welding of titanium alloys

Jianglin Huang, Nils Warnken, Jean-Christophe Gebelin, Martin Strangwood, Roger Reed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The transport of hydrogen during fusion welding of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al4V is analyzed. A coupled thermodynamic/kinetic treatment is proposed for the mass transport within and around the weld pool. The modeling indicates that hydrogen accumulates in the weld pool as a consequence of the thermodynamic driving forces that arise; a region of hydrogen depletion exists in cooler, surrounding regions in the heat-affected zone and beyond. Coupling with a hydrogen diffusion-controlled bubble growth model is used to simulate bubble growth in the melt and, thus, to make predictions of the hydrogen concentration barrier needed for pore formation. The effects of surface tension of liquid metal and the radius of preexisting microbubble size on the barrier are discussed. The work provides insights into the mechanism of porosity formation in titanium alloys.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)582-591
Number of pages10
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 29 Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • hydrogen
  • fusion welding
  • titanium alloys
  • hydrogen concentration barrier
  • pore formation
  • surface tension
  • microbubble size
  • porosity formation


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