Hybrid LiFi and WiFi networks: a survey

Xiping Wu, Mohammad Dehghani Soltani, Lai Zhou, Majid Safari, Harald Haas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


In order to tackle the rapidly growing number of mobile devices and their expanding demands for Internet services, network convergence is envisaged to integrate different technology domains. For indoor wireless communications, one promising approach is to coordinate light fidelity (LiFi) and wireless fidelity (WiFi), namely hybrid LiFi and WiFi networks (HLWNets). This hybrid network combines the high-speed data transmission of LiFi and the ubiquitous coverage of WiFi. In this article, we present a survey-style introduction to HLWNets, starting with a framework of system design in the aspects of network architectures, cell deployments, multiple access and modulation schemes, illumination requirements and backhaul. Key performance metrics and recent achievements are then reviewed to demonstrate the superiority of HLWNets against stand-alone networks. Further, the unique challenges facing HLWNets are elaborated on key research topics including user behavior modeling, interference management, handover and load balancing. Moreover, the potential of HLWNets in the application areas is presented, exemplified by indoor positioning and physical layer security. Finally, the challenges and future research directions are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1398-1420
Number of pages23
JournalIEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2021


  • light fidelity (LiFi)
  • wireless fidelity (WiFi)
  • visible light communication (VLC)
  • radio frequency (RF)
  • optical wireless communication (OWC)
  • hybrid network
  • heterogeneous network
  • network convergence
  • handover
  • load balancing


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