How to switch a fluorophore: from undesired blinking to controlled photoswitching

Sebastian van de Linde, Markus Sauer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

139 Citations (Scopus)


Molecular optical photoswitches based on fluorescent proteins and organic dyes are fundamental for super-resolution fluorescence imaging and tracking methods. Precise control of switching, bio-labeling compatibility, and high brightness make photoswitches broadly applicable. This review emphasizes the design and development of photoswitches and the requirements they need to fulfill for their successful application in single-molecule localization microscopy. Furthermore, we discuss recent developments in improving the photoswitching performance with a special focus on organic dyes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1076-1087
Number of pages12
JournalChemical Society Reviews
Issue number4
Early online date13 Aug 2013
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • molecular optical photoswitches
  • organic dyes
  • super-resolution fluorescence imaging


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