How the smartphone is driving the eye-health imaging revolution

Nigel M Bolster, Mario E Giardini, Iain AT Livingstone, Andrew Bastawrous

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
335 Downloads (Pure)


The digitization of ophthalmic images has opened up a number of exciting possibilities within eye care such as automated pathology detection, as well as electronic storage and transmission. However, technology capable of capturing digital ophthalmic images remains expensive. We review the latest progress in creating ophthalmic imaging devices based around smartphones, which are readily available to most practicing ophthalmologists and other medical professionals. If successfully developed to be inexpensive and to offer high-quality imaging capabilities, these devices will have huge potential for disease detection and reduction of preventable blindness across the globe. We discuss the specific implications of such devices in high-, middle-and low-income settings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)475-485
Number of pages11
JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
Issue number6
Early online date12 Nov 2014
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014


  • anterior segment imaging
  • fundoscopy
  • imaging
  • mHealth
  • mobile phone
  • ophthalmoscopy
  • retina
  • slit-lamp
  • smartphones
  • telemedicine
  • ophthalmology
  • mobile phone app
  • ehealth
  • mobile phone technology
  • mobile phones


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  • Peek - Portable Eye Examination Kit

    Mario Ettore Giardini (Participant), Andrew Bastawrous (Participant), Iain A.T. Livingstone (Participant), Stewart Jordan (Participant) & Nigel Bolster (Participant)

    Impact: Impact - for External PortalHealth and welfare - new products, guidelines and services

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