Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S:Er3+ for photovoltaic applications

Rosa Martín-Rodríguez, Stefan Fischer, Aruna Ivaturi, Benjamin Froehlich, Karl W. Krämer, Jan C. Goldschmidt, Bryce S. Richards, Andries Meijerink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Upconversion (UC) is a promising option to enhance the efficiency of solar cells by conversion of sub-bandgap infrared photons to higher energy photons that can be utilized by the solar cell. The UC quantum yield is a key parameter for a successful application. Here the UC luminescence properties of Er 3+-doped Gd2O2S are investigated by means of luminescence spectroscopy, quantum yield measurements, and excited state dynamics experiments. Excitation into the maximum of the 4I 15/24I13/2 Er3+ absorption band around 1500 nm induces very efficient UC emission from different Er 3+ excited states with energies above the silicon bandgap, in particular, the emission originating from the 4I11/2 state around 1000 nm. Concentration dependent studies reveal that the highest UC quantum yield is realized for a 10% Er3+-doping concentration. The UC luminescence is compared to the well-known Er3+-doped β-NaYF4 UC material for which the highest UC quantum yield has been reported for 25% Er3+. The UC internal quantum yields were measured in this work for Gd2O2S: 10%Er3+ and β-NaYF4: 25%Er3+ to be 12 ± 1% and 8.9 ± 0.7%, respectively, under monochromatic excitation around 1500 nm at a power of 700 W/m2. The UC quantum yield reported here for Gd 2O2S: 10%Er3+ is the highest value achieved so far under monochromatic excitation into the 4I13/2 Er 3+ level. Power dependence and lifetime measurements were performed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the efficient UC luminescence. We show that the main process yielding 4I11/2 UC emission is energy transfer UC.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1912-1921
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume25
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2013

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Quantum yield
Luminescence
Excited states
Solar cells
Energy gap
Photons
Silicon
Energy transfer
gadolinium sulfoxylate
Absorption spectra
Doping (additives)
Spectroscopy
Infrared radiation
Experiments

Keywords

  • luminescence
  • quantum yield
  • solar cells
  • upconversion

Cite this

Martín-Rodríguez, R., Fischer, S., Ivaturi, A., Froehlich, B., Krämer, K. W., Goldschmidt, J. C., ... Meijerink, A. (2013). Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S:Er3+ for photovoltaic applications. Chemistry of Materials, 25(9), 1912-1921. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm4005745
Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa ; Fischer, Stefan ; Ivaturi, Aruna ; Froehlich, Benjamin ; Krämer, Karl W. ; Goldschmidt, Jan C. ; Richards, Bryce S. ; Meijerink, Andries. / Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S:Er3+ for photovoltaic applications. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2013 ; Vol. 25, No. 9. pp. 1912-1921.
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abstract = "Upconversion (UC) is a promising option to enhance the efficiency of solar cells by conversion of sub-bandgap infrared photons to higher energy photons that can be utilized by the solar cell. The UC quantum yield is a key parameter for a successful application. Here the UC luminescence properties of Er 3+-doped Gd2O2S are investigated by means of luminescence spectroscopy, quantum yield measurements, and excited state dynamics experiments. Excitation into the maximum of the 4I 15/2 → 4I13/2 Er3+ absorption band around 1500 nm induces very efficient UC emission from different Er 3+ excited states with energies above the silicon bandgap, in particular, the emission originating from the 4I11/2 state around 1000 nm. Concentration dependent studies reveal that the highest UC quantum yield is realized for a 10{\%} Er3+-doping concentration. The UC luminescence is compared to the well-known Er3+-doped β-NaYF4 UC material for which the highest UC quantum yield has been reported for 25{\%} Er3+. The UC internal quantum yields were measured in this work for Gd2O2S: 10{\%}Er3+ and β-NaYF4: 25{\%}Er3+ to be 12 ± 1{\%} and 8.9 ± 0.7{\%}, respectively, under monochromatic excitation around 1500 nm at a power of 700 W/m2. The UC quantum yield reported here for Gd 2O2S: 10{\%}Er3+ is the highest value achieved so far under monochromatic excitation into the 4I13/2 Er 3+ level. Power dependence and lifetime measurements were performed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the efficient UC luminescence. We show that the main process yielding 4I11/2 UC emission is energy transfer UC.",
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Martín-Rodríguez, R, Fischer, S, Ivaturi, A, Froehlich, B, Krämer, KW, Goldschmidt, JC, Richards, BS & Meijerink, A 2013, 'Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S:Er3+ for photovoltaic applications' Chemistry of Materials, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1912-1921. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm4005745

Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S:Er3+ for photovoltaic applications. / Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fischer, Stefan; Ivaturi, Aruna; Froehlich, Benjamin; Krämer, Karl W.; Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Richards, Bryce S.; Meijerink, Andries.

In: Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 25, No. 9, 05.04.2013, p. 1912-1921.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S:Er3+ for photovoltaic applications

AU - Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa

AU - Fischer, Stefan

AU - Ivaturi, Aruna

AU - Froehlich, Benjamin

AU - Krämer, Karl W.

AU - Goldschmidt, Jan C.

AU - Richards, Bryce S.

AU - Meijerink, Andries

PY - 2013/4/5

Y1 - 2013/4/5

N2 - Upconversion (UC) is a promising option to enhance the efficiency of solar cells by conversion of sub-bandgap infrared photons to higher energy photons that can be utilized by the solar cell. The UC quantum yield is a key parameter for a successful application. Here the UC luminescence properties of Er 3+-doped Gd2O2S are investigated by means of luminescence spectroscopy, quantum yield measurements, and excited state dynamics experiments. Excitation into the maximum of the 4I 15/2 → 4I13/2 Er3+ absorption band around 1500 nm induces very efficient UC emission from different Er 3+ excited states with energies above the silicon bandgap, in particular, the emission originating from the 4I11/2 state around 1000 nm. Concentration dependent studies reveal that the highest UC quantum yield is realized for a 10% Er3+-doping concentration. The UC luminescence is compared to the well-known Er3+-doped β-NaYF4 UC material for which the highest UC quantum yield has been reported for 25% Er3+. The UC internal quantum yields were measured in this work for Gd2O2S: 10%Er3+ and β-NaYF4: 25%Er3+ to be 12 ± 1% and 8.9 ± 0.7%, respectively, under monochromatic excitation around 1500 nm at a power of 700 W/m2. The UC quantum yield reported here for Gd 2O2S: 10%Er3+ is the highest value achieved so far under monochromatic excitation into the 4I13/2 Er 3+ level. Power dependence and lifetime measurements were performed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the efficient UC luminescence. We show that the main process yielding 4I11/2 UC emission is energy transfer UC.

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KW - solar cells

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Martín-Rodríguez R, Fischer S, Ivaturi A, Froehlich B, Krämer KW, Goldschmidt JC et al. Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S:Er3+ for photovoltaic applications. Chemistry of Materials. 2013 Apr 5;25(9):1912-1921. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm4005745