High-throughput electrical characterization of nanomaterials from room to cryogenic temperatures

Luke W. Smith, Jack O. Batey, Jack A. Alexander-Webber, Ye Fan, Yu Chiang Hsieh, S. Fung, Dimitars Jevtics, Joshua Robertson, Benoit J.E. Guilhabert, Michael J. Strain, Martin D. Dawson, Antonio Hurtado, Jonathan P. Griffiths, Harvey E. Beere, Chennupati Jagadish, Oliver J. Burton, Stephan Hofmann, Tse Ming Chen, David A. Ritchie, Michael KellyHannah J. Joyce, Charles G. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


We present multiplexer methodology and hardware for nanoelectronic device characterization. This high-throughput and scalable approach to testing large arrays of nanodevices operates from room temperature to milli-Kelvin temperatures and is universally compatible with different materials and integration techniques. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on two archetypal nanomaterials-graphene and semiconductor nanowires-integrated with a GaAs-based multiplexer using wet or dry transfer methods. A graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition is transferred and patterned into an array of individual devices, achieving 94% yield. Device performance is evaluated using data fitting methods to obtain electrical transport metrics, showing mobilities comparable to nonmultiplexed devices fabricated on oxide substrates using wet transfer techniques. Separate arrays of indium-arsenide nanowires and micromechanically exfoliated monolayer graphene flakes are transferred using pick-and-place techniques. For the nanowire array mean values for mobility μFE = 880/3180 cm2 V-1 s-1 (lower/upper bound), subthreshold swing 430 mV dec-1, and on/off ratio 3.1 decades are extracted, similar to nonmultiplexed devices. In another array, eight mechanically exfoliated graphene flakes are transferred using techniques compatible with fabrication of two-dimensional superlattices, with 75% yield. Our results are a proof-of-concept demonstration of a versatile platform for scalable fabrication and cryogenic characterization of nanomaterial device arrays, which is compatible with a broad range of nanomaterials, transfer techniques, and device integration strategies from the forefront of quantum technology research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15293-15305
Number of pages13
JournalACS Nano
Issue number11
Early online date26 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 24 Nov 2020


  • electronic characterization
  • graphene and 2D materials
  • high-throughput testing
  • nanoelectronic device arrays
  • nanowires
  • scalable fabrication


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