Hard to avoid but difficult to sustain: Scotland's innovative health tax on large retailers selling tobacco and alcohol

Mark Hellowell, Katherine E. Smith, Alexandra Wright

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Context -- In the context of increasing health spending and a constrained budget, the Scottish government levied a new “health” tax on large retailers selling alcohol and tobacco in April 2012. This innovative tax, the Public Health Supplement, had the potential to finance additional health spending while discouraging retailers from selling tobacco. We present a case study of the levy; examine how it evolved over time and what impacts it had; explore why, in 2015, the government decided to discontinue the policy; and consider how this experience might inform future strategies for addressing tobacco and alcohol harms via taxes on retailers.

    Methods -- We employed 3 data sources: (1) policy documents (both documents in the public domain and documents obtained via Freedom of Information requests), (2) media coverage of the debates surrounding the Public Health Supplement, and (3) key informant interviews. We analyzed these data collectively, in chronological order, triangulating between sources.

    Findings -- When the Supplement was announced in 2011, a clear health rationale was advanced. However, the policy, as subsequently implemented, was not designed to elicit a behavioral response from retailers in terms of alcohol or tobacco sales. It was successful in generating a predictable revenue stream, but there was no evidence that this was earmarked for health. Hence, the substantive health content of the policy was questionable, a fact that was highlighted by industry opponents of the tax, while there was also a lack of competing support from health interests. The industry's campaign was influential in the government's subsequent decision to reduce the rate of the tax and restrict its duration to 3 years.

    Conclusions -- A tax may be considered a “health” tax on the basis that it raises revenue for health spending and/or that it helps achieve health aims (eg, behavioral change), but there may be tension between these goals in policy design. Framing a tax as a health measure may increase public support in the short term, but this may not be sustained if such framing is insufficiently justified.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages800-831
    Number of pages32
    JournalMilbank Quarterly
    Volume94
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

    Fingerprint

    Scotland
    Tobacco
    Alcohols
    Health
    Industry
    Public Health
    Public Sector
    Information Storage and Retrieval
    Taxes
    Budgets
    Health Policy
    Interviews

    Keywords

    • alcohol
    • retailers/supermarkets
    • taxes
    • tobacco
    • public health policy
    • health tax

    Cite this

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    abstract = "Context -- In the context of increasing health spending and a constrained budget, the Scottish government levied a new “health” tax on large retailers selling alcohol and tobacco in April 2012. This innovative tax, the Public Health Supplement, had the potential to finance additional health spending while discouraging retailers from selling tobacco. We present a case study of the levy; examine how it evolved over time and what impacts it had; explore why, in 2015, the government decided to discontinue the policy; and consider how this experience might inform future strategies for addressing tobacco and alcohol harms via taxes on retailers.Methods -- We employed 3 data sources: (1) policy documents (both documents in the public domain and documents obtained via Freedom of Information requests), (2) media coverage of the debates surrounding the Public Health Supplement, and (3) key informant interviews. We analyzed these data collectively, in chronological order, triangulating between sources.Findings -- When the Supplement was announced in 2011, a clear health rationale was advanced. However, the policy, as subsequently implemented, was not designed to elicit a behavioral response from retailers in terms of alcohol or tobacco sales. It was successful in generating a predictable revenue stream, but there was no evidence that this was earmarked for health. Hence, the substantive health content of the policy was questionable, a fact that was highlighted by industry opponents of the tax, while there was also a lack of competing support from health interests. The industry's campaign was influential in the government's subsequent decision to reduce the rate of the tax and restrict its duration to 3 years.Conclusions -- A tax may be considered a “health” tax on the basis that it raises revenue for health spending and/or that it helps achieve health aims (eg, behavioral change), but there may be tension between these goals in policy design. Framing a tax as a health measure may increase public support in the short term, but this may not be sustained if such framing is insufficiently justified.",
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    Hard to avoid but difficult to sustain : Scotland's innovative health tax on large retailers selling tobacco and alcohol. / Hellowell, Mark; Smith, Katherine E.; Wright, Alexandra.

    Vol. 94, No. 4, 01.12.2016, p. 800-831.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Smith, Katherine E.

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    N2 - Context -- In the context of increasing health spending and a constrained budget, the Scottish government levied a new “health” tax on large retailers selling alcohol and tobacco in April 2012. This innovative tax, the Public Health Supplement, had the potential to finance additional health spending while discouraging retailers from selling tobacco. We present a case study of the levy; examine how it evolved over time and what impacts it had; explore why, in 2015, the government decided to discontinue the policy; and consider how this experience might inform future strategies for addressing tobacco and alcohol harms via taxes on retailers.Methods -- We employed 3 data sources: (1) policy documents (both documents in the public domain and documents obtained via Freedom of Information requests), (2) media coverage of the debates surrounding the Public Health Supplement, and (3) key informant interviews. We analyzed these data collectively, in chronological order, triangulating between sources.Findings -- When the Supplement was announced in 2011, a clear health rationale was advanced. However, the policy, as subsequently implemented, was not designed to elicit a behavioral response from retailers in terms of alcohol or tobacco sales. It was successful in generating a predictable revenue stream, but there was no evidence that this was earmarked for health. Hence, the substantive health content of the policy was questionable, a fact that was highlighted by industry opponents of the tax, while there was also a lack of competing support from health interests. The industry's campaign was influential in the government's subsequent decision to reduce the rate of the tax and restrict its duration to 3 years.Conclusions -- A tax may be considered a “health” tax on the basis that it raises revenue for health spending and/or that it helps achieve health aims (eg, behavioral change), but there may be tension between these goals in policy design. Framing a tax as a health measure may increase public support in the short term, but this may not be sustained if such framing is insufficiently justified.

    AB - Context -- In the context of increasing health spending and a constrained budget, the Scottish government levied a new “health” tax on large retailers selling alcohol and tobacco in April 2012. This innovative tax, the Public Health Supplement, had the potential to finance additional health spending while discouraging retailers from selling tobacco. We present a case study of the levy; examine how it evolved over time and what impacts it had; explore why, in 2015, the government decided to discontinue the policy; and consider how this experience might inform future strategies for addressing tobacco and alcohol harms via taxes on retailers.Methods -- We employed 3 data sources: (1) policy documents (both documents in the public domain and documents obtained via Freedom of Information requests), (2) media coverage of the debates surrounding the Public Health Supplement, and (3) key informant interviews. We analyzed these data collectively, in chronological order, triangulating between sources.Findings -- When the Supplement was announced in 2011, a clear health rationale was advanced. However, the policy, as subsequently implemented, was not designed to elicit a behavioral response from retailers in terms of alcohol or tobacco sales. It was successful in generating a predictable revenue stream, but there was no evidence that this was earmarked for health. Hence, the substantive health content of the policy was questionable, a fact that was highlighted by industry opponents of the tax, while there was also a lack of competing support from health interests. The industry's campaign was influential in the government's subsequent decision to reduce the rate of the tax and restrict its duration to 3 years.Conclusions -- A tax may be considered a “health” tax on the basis that it raises revenue for health spending and/or that it helps achieve health aims (eg, behavioral change), but there may be tension between these goals in policy design. Framing a tax as a health measure may increase public support in the short term, but this may not be sustained if such framing is insufficiently justified.

    KW - alcohol

    KW - retailers/supermarkets

    KW - taxes

    KW - tobacco

    KW - public health policy

    KW - health tax

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